27 January 2016

† Fürstin Eilika zu Leiningen

Fürstin Eilika zu Leiningen, née Duchess of Oldenburg died on Tuesday 26.01.2016 just days before her 88th birthday. She was born on 02.02.1928 as daughter of Hereditary Grand Duke Nikolaus of Oldenburg and his first wife Helene, née Princess zu Waldeck and Pyrmont. In 1950 she married Fürst Emich zu Leiningen the head of the mediatized Princely Family of Leiningen. Together the had four children.

Article in the Main-Echo

23 January 2016

† Count Anton-Wolfgang of Faber-Castell

There is probably no one in Germany who would not have thought ever a pencil or highlighter from the house of Faber-Castell in hand. Yet never lost traction Anton-Wolfgang von Faber-Castell. Instead, he worked consistently and after retirement with great commitment to the success of this traditional company. After a serious illness, the CEO of Faber-Castell AG has now died on Thursday in the US Houston, as a company spokeswoman in Stein near Nuremberg announced on Friday. He was 74 years old.
Count Anton-Wolfgang of  Faber-Castellwas born  on 7 June 1941 in Bamberg. After attending school in Switzerland, he joined a law degree from the University of Zurich. "With Jura makes you never something wrong," he explained this choice once the German Press Agency. His career has certainly not harmed: For six years he worked as an investment banker in London and New York, before he - joined the family - in the eighth generation.
In 1978 he became the sole managing partner of the Faber-Castell Group and later with the conversion into an unlisted company whose shares CEO. "I always found it interesting to gain experience abroad," summed Graf von Faber-Castell. "I think that for my children to be important." He is survived by a son from his first marriage three daughters from the relationship with his wife Mary.

Faber-Castell wanted normality for his children

During his youngest daughters - twins - with 19 years still standing on the threshold of adult life, his son Charles is already mid-30s, the former investment banker has occurred two years ago in the company. In November also wife Mary rose from the management of the cosmetics division in the Executive Board of AG, where also a brother of the deceased is active.
Graf von Faber-Castell has always desired that the company remains in the hands of the family after his death. However, he deliberately took his children at a young age in the operation. "This is a basic rule with us, the only times you have to be self-employed, before coming into the company." In the education of his children he had always been careful to let them grow into normality and to educate about modesty, tolerance and moral courage.
High standards set Graf von Faber-Castell also to himself and his work. In conversation polite and attentive, never lacked the tall man with the softly falling silver hair while the handkerchief to a suit and tie. This is also reflected in his hobbies again. In addition to tennis and skiing Graf von Faber-Castell collected as a young man of art, especially contemporary drawings. He himself, however, to draw more than in boring meetings on the edge of his documents, he confessed once.

10 January 2016

german Houses: The Royal House of Prussia

 

The Royal House of Prussia

House of Hohenzollern


When in 1192 Burgrave Friedrich III./I. of Nuremberg Count of Hohenzollern died he left 2 sons who partitioned the family lands between themselves
  • The older brother, Friedrich IV, received the county of Zollern and burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. The Swabian line remained Catholic
  • The younger brother, Konrad III, received the burgraviate of Nuremberg from his older brother Friedrich IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. The Franconian line later converted to Protestantism 
The descendants of Konrad I. of Nuremberg (* around 1186; † to 1260/1261), were until 1427 Burgraves of Nuremberg. Initially belonged to the Burgraviate of Nuremberg few possessions. Rather, the family had usable rights by the Office of the Empire.  The territory which  was expanded in the 13th century through acquisitions, was at the end of the 14th century the biggest territorial domination in Swiss francs and had at the beginning of the 15th century during the reign of Friedrich  VI. the greatest extent. The affinity with the Abenbergern brought in 1236 a the castle Abenberg and Cadolzburg,  thus the spread in Franconia was able to take its beginning. Furthermore, the Hohenzollern took over the patronage of the monastery Heilsbronn, that was the grave lay of  the Family 1297-1625. 1260 they came by marriage into the possession of Bayreuth, In 1331, they received by way of purchase Ansbach, 1340 Kulmbach and Plassenburg. Burggraf Friedrich V. was by Emperor Karl IV. from the dynasty of Luxembourg in 1363 along with his house raised to the rank of imperial princes (Reichsfürstenstand).  In 1427 the office of Burggrave of Nuremberg and the castle of the Burgraves were sold to the City of Nuremberg. From the unsold areas of the Burgraviate Nuremberg later the principalities Bayreuth  and Ansbach could develop  which were ruled by Hohenzollern's. Johann III. Nuremberg (* around 1369; † 1420) was in 1398 the first Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (from 1604 Brandenburg-Bayreuth). His brother Friedrich VI. Nuremberg (* 1371, † 1440) was from 1398, the first Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. The territories were originally Slavic and were Germanized by the foundation of the diocese of Bamberg in 1007 little by little. The two principalities were ruled repeatedly in personal union. The Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Brandenburg-Ansbach led still the viscount title, underlining the origin of their dynasty. Georg the Pious (* 1484, † 1543), Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach acquired in 1523 the Duchy Jägerndorf whose residence was located in Krnov. The Hohenzollern 1623 were replaced as regent in the duchy. The Principality of Ansbach became in 1806 a part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Principality of Bayreuth in 1810.

Burgraves of Nuremberg

1218-1260/61 
Konrad I.
1260/61-1297 
Friedrich III.
1297-1300      
Johann I.
1300-1332      
Friedrich IV.
1332-1357      
Johann II.
1357-1398      
Friedrich IV.
1398-1420      
Johann III.
1420-1427      
Friedrich VI. 


Margraviate of Brandenburg Ansbach

The Principality of Ansbach evolved from a part of the Burgraviate Nuremberg. Together with the the Rest of the Burgraviate it  formed the Frankish lands of the Hohenzollern. After the Hohenzollern 1415/1417 with Burggrave Friedrich VI. had come from Nuremberg in the hereditary possession of the Mark Brandenburg, they used their newly acquired title by Margrave with time also in their previous Frankish possessions. With the 1427 completion of the sale of the Nuremberg Brugrave Castle to the imperial city of Nuremberg, the Burgrave's chapter ended in the history of the Hohenzollern. For their Frankish territories margravate nationalized itself now the designation, or in the course of later (at first only temporary) land divisions then margraviates. The final separation into two independent territories finally took place in 1486 after the death of Margrave Albrecht Achilles. According to the 1473 adopted by Albrecht Dispositio Achillea while the Hohenzollern dominion in Franconia was divided among his two younger sons. The allocation of the two parts of the country was decided by drawing lots. Friedrich II. Came here with the untergebirgischen country later Principality of Ansbach, while his brother Siegmund with the second part of the country was awarded being the subsequent Principality Kulmbach.The Principality of Ansbach was indeed ruled repeatedly in personal union with the Principality of Kulmbach (or since 1604. Bayreuth) (1495-1515, 1557-1603 and 1769-1791), it remained until the end of the Old Kingdom, a constitutionally independent territory. The Principality of Bayreuth there was 1791/1792 affiliated to the Prussian state and managed together collectively as Ansbach-Bayreuth initially by Karl August von Hardenberg. Even before the defeat of Prussia in the fourth coalition war it fell in 1806 by a forced exchange of Napoleon territory to the Kingdom of Bavaria.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach:

1398-1440 Friedrich I., also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and since 1415 Elector of Brandenburg 
married to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut 
1440-1486 Albrecht I. Achilles, since 1457 also Margrave of Brandenburg.Kulmbach and since 1470  Elector of Brandenburg
married first to Princess Margarete of Baden          
married second to Princess Anna of Saxony
1486-1515 Friedrich II., since 1495 also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
married to Sophia of Poland
1515-1543  Georg the Pious
married first to Beatrice de Frangepan
married second to Hedwig of Münsterberg
married third to Princess Aemelia of Saxony 
1543-1603 Georg Friedrich I., also Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
married to Princess Sophie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1603-1625 Joachim Ernst
married to  Countess Sophie of Solms-Laubach
1625-1634 Friedrich III.
1634-1667 Albrecht II.
married first to Princess Henriette of Württemberg.Mömpelgard
married second to Countess Sophie Margarethe of Oettingen-Oettingen
1667-1686 Johann Friedrich
married first to Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Baden
married second to Princess Eleonore of Saxe-Eisenach
1686-1692 Christian Albrecht
1692-1702 Georg Friedrich II.
1703-1723 Wilhelm Friedrich
married to Princess Christiane Charlotte of Württemberg-Winnenthal
1723-1757 Karl Wilhelm Friedrich
married to Princess Friederike Luise of Prussia
1757-1791 Karl Alexander
married first to Princess Caroline Friederike of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
married second to Lady Elizabeth Craven 


Margraviate of Brandenburg-Kulmbach since 1604 Brandenburg-Bayreuth


The Principality of Bayreuth evolved from the a part  part of the Burbgraviate  Nuremberg. Together with the rest of the  County  it formed the Frankish land of Hohenzollern. After the Hohenzollern 1415/1417 with Burggrave Friedrich VI. had come from Nuremberg in the hereditary possession of the Mark Brandenburg, they used their newly acquired title Markgraf also in their previous Frankish possessions. With the sale of the Nuremberg Burgravial Castle to the imperial city of Nuremberg in 1427, the Burgaviate  chapter ended in the history of Hohenzollern. For their Frankish territories, the term margravate nationalized one. The final separation into two independent territories was finally held in 1486 after the death of Albrecht Achilles. According to the 1473 adopted by Albrecht Achilles the Hohenzollern dominion in Franconia was divided among his two younger sons. The allocation of the two parts of the country was decided by drawing lots. Here Sigismund  fell to the obergebirgische part of the country, the later Principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. His brother Friedrich II. of Brandenburg-Ansbach received with the country being the subsequent untergebirgischen Principality of Ansbach. Although the Principality of Kulmbach or the Principality of Bayreuth was ruled repeatedly in personal union with the Principality of Ansbach (1495-1515, 1557-1603 and 1769-1791), it remained until the end of the Holy Roman Empire a constitutionally independent territory. Margrave Karl Alexander entered on 16.01.1791 in a secret treaty his principalities Ansbach-Bayreuth for a lifetime annual pension of 300,000 florins to body the Prussian state from. Karl August von Hardenberg principalities initially jointly managed. During the Fourth Coalition War, the Principality of Bayreuth was occupied in the autumn of 1806 by French troops. After the crushing defeat of Prussia had to cede to the French Empire in the Treaty of Tilsit the Frankish territory 1807th While maintaining the Prussian administrative structures it was first placed under a French military administration. But Emperor Napoleon regarded the Principality as merely pays Reserve, ie an area which he kept in reserve for future exchange transactions. Already in 1808 he offered it to the Congress of Erfurt to the Kingdom of Bavaria for the price of 25 million, later for 15 million francs to. Initially hesitant, the UK in 1810 but paid the sum demanded. With the appropriation by Bayern on 30 June of the same year ended the existence of the Principality of Bayreuth.


Margraves of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, since 1604 Brandenburg-Bayreuth

1398-1420 Johann III.
married to Margarete of Luxembourg-Bohemia, daughter of Emperor Karl IV.
1420-1440 Friedrich I., also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Elector of Brandenburg
married to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut
1440-1457 Johann
married to Princess Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg
1457-1486 Albrecht I. Achilles, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and since 1470  Elector of Brandenburg
married first to Princess Margarete of Baden          
married second to Princess Anna of Saxony 
1486-1495 Siegmund
1495-1 515 Friedrich II., also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
married to Sophia of Poland

1515-1525 Kasimir
married to Princess Susanna of Bavaria
1525-1554 Albrecht II. Albiciades
1554-1557 Interregnum
1557-1603 Georg Friedrich the older, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
married to Princess Sophie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1603-1655 Christian
married to Princess Marie of Prussia
1655-1712 Christian Ernst
married first to Princess Ermuthe Sophie of Saxony
married second to Princess Sophie Luise of Württemberg
married third to Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg
1712-1726 Georg Wilhelm
married to Princess  Sophie of Saxe-Weissenfels
1726-1735 Georg Friedrich
married to Princess  Dorothe of Sleswig-Hiolstein-Sondernburg-Beck
1735- 1763 Friedrich III.
married first to Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia
married second to  Princess Sophie Karoline of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
1763-1791 Karl Aelxander, also Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
married first to Princess Caroline Friederike of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
married second to Lady Elizabeth Craven


Electorate of Brandenburg
 
In 1411 Burggrave Friedrich VI. of Nuremberg was invested by  King Sigismund of Luxembourg as the  hereditary captain and manager of the Mark Brandenburg. This was done in recognition of its earlier support for the previous royal elections on 20.09.1410 in Frankfurt am Main. The official transfer took place four years later on 30.04.1415 at the Council of Constance. The homage of the Brandenburg stands took place in the same year on  21.10. in Berlin. The formal investiture of the Electorate and the awarding of the dignity of archgentleman took King Sigismund, in turn, to the Council of Constance, on 18.04.1417. As ruler of Brandenburg Friedrich VI. of Nuremberg then referred to as Friedrich I. of Brandenburg. He made Berlin his residence, but retreated to his Franconian possessions, after he trasmitted in 1437 the government of the March Brandenburg to his son Friedrich II.  Friedrich II. took over after the testamentary provisions with his brother Friedrich, called "the Fat", the leadership in the country. In 1447 it came with his brother to a division of the property. Friedrich II. went Consistent action against the predatory nobility. His determination in the government action against the Estates earned him the nickname "the Iron". He also did not tolerate the striving for autonomy of cities. Particularly significant was the recovery of the Neumark and the recovery of parts of the Uckermark during his reign. The Margrave left in 1470 his brother Albert Achilles the government. Albrecht Achilles was since 1438 on the side of  the King Albrecht II. from the House of Habsburg. He took over in 1440 the regency in the Franconian "lower country" in Ansbach and from 1464 also in the Frankish "upper country" with the Plassenburg. Due to the resignation of Friedrich II. he owned from 1470 also  the Mark Brandenburg. Albrecht Achilles regulated in 1473 with the Dispositio Achillea dominion successor for the entire and indivisible Mark. His grandson Joachim I. Nestor, however, caused the creation of the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin with Johann as regent 1535-1571 an inheritance. In 1486 Johann Cicero took over the government responsibility. As defined in the Dispositio Achillea of 1473, the Mark Brandenburg was separated from the franconian countries. Joachim I. Nestor and his brother Albrecht IV. of Brandenburg were 1499 successor under guardianship of the Frankish uncle Friedrich. Albrecht IV. became a clergyman and worked among others as archbishop of Magdeburg. In  1524  immediate nuclear domination Ruppin  was drafted by Joachim I. and combined with the March Brandenburg. Despite many Märkischer followers of Martin Luther, the bishops and cathedral chapters locked against the influences of the Reformation. Joachim I behaved well, even though he received the Wittenberg personally. After his death in 1535 an inheritance took place Joachim II. Hector followed his father as Elector. Joachim I.'s younger son Johann was given Brandburg-Küstrin as secondeginitur. A As he had no male Issue after his death it paseed to his nephew Johann Georg.  With his conversion to the Protestant faith on November 1, 1539, he ushered in the Reformation in Brandenburg.  Elector Joachim II.  brought in Mark Brandenburg after the Reformation Lutheran confession. On its pressure the Bishopric of Brandenburg took over the two central forms of representation - the chalice for the laity and the priests marriage. His son Johann Georg received  in 1571 Mark and after the death of Johann of Brandenburg-Küstrin also  Brandenburg-Küstrin. Joachim Friedrich put the Geraer House agreement of 1599, the primogeniture and indivisibility of Mark final.  In 1594 the then electoral Prince Johann Sigismund marrie0, 1594 Anna, the daughter of Duke Albrecht Friedrich of Prussia from the ansbach line of the franconian Hohenzollern's The father of the electoral prince, Elector of Brandenburg Joachim Friedrich took over 1605 for the Prussian duke the regency over the Duchy of Prussia after the Insane Albrecht Friedrich had become incapable of governing. In 1608 Johann Sigismund succeeded as Elector of Brandenburg. After the death of Johann Wilhelm, the last Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, broke in 1609 dispute over the vacant duchy of, the so-called Jülich-Cleves succession dispute, between the main heir, the Elector of Brandenburg Johannn Sigismund and Wolfgang Wilhelm of Pfalz-Neuburg out. In the Treaty of Xanten from  12.11.1614 succeeded the Elector of Brandenburg, successfully to enforce the claim to the Duchy of Cleves, the Mark county and the county Ravensberg for themselves. With the death of his father-in-law Duke  Albrecht Friedrich of Prussiain 1618  Johann Sigismund 1618 officially Duke of Prussia. Brandenburg and Prussia were since then in personal union. Elector of Brandenburg was awarded the Duchy of Prussia by the Polish king first as fief until in  1657, the Treaty of Wehlau the Brandenburg electors final  got full sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia.  The newfound territories initially remained physically, politically and economically isolated from the core state  the Mark Brandenburg. Only by the ruling person from the Hohenzollern family, the individual parts of the country were linked. A common national consciousness or a holistically operated state policy under Elector Georg Wilhelm did not exist. Instead, the individual parts of the country kept their own state constitutions, traditions, structures and regional elites. As in 1618, the Thirty Years War broke out, the Hohenzollern land were initially spared. The new Elector Georg Wilhelm, who had followed Johann Sigismund in 1619 was not decided to defy the foreign policy developments in the situation of its Central province. From 1626 the Mark Brandenburg became visibly devastated. The Mark was alternately in this time dominated by the imperial troops and the Swedes, while the elector at the end of his reign, leaving a governor, often in his Duchy of Prussia (eg 1627-1630), and fled in his Rhenish provinces. By the flight of the electors Kurmark any arbitrariness was abandoned. On 01.12.1640 Elector Georg Wilhelm died in Königsberg.The new Elector, Frederick William, started from the patchwork by establishing shared institutional structures to develop a central government. In the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, Elector Friedich Wilhelm  could acquire  Pomerania, the Archbishopric of Magdeburg and the Bishopric of Halberstadt and the Principality of Minden e that  corresponded together an area of ​​approximately 20,000. km². Despite these territorial gains worsened the situation for the elector, because the parts of the country isolated part and were far apart. Brandenburg-Prussia was now surrounded by powerful countries such as the new great power Sweden in the north, which could threaten the Mark and the Duchy of Prussia anytime, France, which at all times had access to the western Rhine provinces, Poland was in the East, the suzerain of the Duchy of Prussia, and in the South-east was the Habsburg Monarchy. Thus the fate of the individual parts of the country were increasingly closely linked with those of the other, so that the history of each area was limited from then on to the internal and local conditions of each country. So operating Elector Friedrich Wilhelm, later called the "Great Elector", after the war a cautious seesaw policy between the major powers to develop its economic and military weak countries. As a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was weakened as a result of the Northern War 1656-1660, the Elector in 1657 in the Treaty of Wehlau could solve the Duchy of Prussia from Polish sovereignty. In the Peace of Oliva of 1660 the sovereignty of the Duchy was finally recognized. This was crucial for his elevation to the Kingdom of Prussia under the son of the Great Elector. Friedrich Wilhelm led by economic reforms and built a power base a powerful standing army on. The estates were deposed in favor of an absolutist central administration, which makes it increasingly succeeded in effectively connecting the territories with each other. In addition, he also spurred the construction of a  electoral brandenburgian fleet and acquired the colony Brandenburger Gold Coast on the West African coast in the area of ​​gold is now Ghana. The Privy Council, the most powerful authority in the Electorate of Brandenburg since its inception in 1604, which was held in the castle of Colln, grew after 1648 on its original function as electoral brandenburgian state authority beyond and became a State-level significance.  According to surviving records of the Privy Council dealt country matters except the Brandenburg areas of the general government from 1654. This was the highest Brandenburg state college central authority of Brandenburg-Prussia. The country's colleges of other areas were instead more and more the Privy Council subordinate. The Privy Council, however, had exceeded its power zenith at this time. Thus, the Court Chamber, founded in 1689 had a greater importance than general government authorities organization. Other general government, based in Berlin authorities were Lehnskanzlei, the Secret Chancellery and the Court of Appeal. Their maintenance, however, was paid in the 17th century largely from Brandenburg resources while Hofstaatskasse has been fed from general government funds. When the Great Elector died on 09.05.1688 he had his country from an in the foreign policy powerless, torn state structure to a body approved by all major powers of that time means power. In addition, Brandenburg-Prussia had risen to Austria the most powerful empire in the territory. A week after the death of the Elector the Privy Council met for the first time under the chairmanship of the new Elector Friedrich III. for the purpose of opening the paternal Testament. In breach of the force since 1473  House of Hohenzollern Brandenburg-Prussia laws should be divided among the five sons of Friedrich Wilhelm so to Friedrich and his four half-brothers. After lengthy negotiations and detailed legal opinion, among other things, of Eberhard von Danckelmann, succeeded the heir apparent to prevail to 1692 against his siblings and to preserve the country's unity. Friedrichs half brothers were resigned as Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt

Electors of Brandenburg

1415-1440  Friedrich I.
married to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut
1440-1470 Friedrich II. 
married to Princess Katharina of Saxony
1470-1486 Albrecht Achilles 
married first to Princess Margarete of Baden          
married second to Princess Anna of Saxony
1486-1499 Johann Cicero
married to Princess Margarete of Saxony
1499-1513 Albrecht IV.
1499-1535 Joachim I. Nestor
married to Princess Elisabeth of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
1535-1571 Joachim II. 
married first to Princess Magdalene of Saxony
married second to Princess  Hedwig of Poland
1571-1598 Johann Georg
married first to Princess Sophie of Liegnitz
married second to Princess Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach
married third to Princess Elisabeth of Anhalt

1598-1608 Joachim Friedrich
married first to Princess Katharina of Brandenburg-Küstrin
married second to Princess Elisabeth of Prussia
1508-1619 Johann Sigismund since 1618 also Duke of Prussia 

Electors of Brandenburg and Dukes of Prussia

1508-1619  Johann Sigismund
married to Princess Anna of Prussia
1619-1640 Georg Wilhelm
married to Princess Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
1640-1688 Friedrich Wilhelm  "The Great Elector"
married first to Princess Luise Henriette of orange
married second to Pricness Dorothea of Sleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, widowed Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1688-1701 Friedrich III. he became in 1701 King in Prussia


Margraviate of Brandenburg-Schwedt

Brandenburg-Schwedt is the subsequent designation of a branch of the Brandenburg-Prussian Hohenzollern. Mistakenly is "Brandenburg-Schwedt" often thought of as a historical principality in northern Brandenburg. In fact, the branch line decreed in their manors Schwedt-Vierraden (Uckermark and Neumark) and Wildenbruch (Pomerania) had no sovereignty or sovereign rights. But when royal princes of the blood with corresponding appanages and heirs of the Electress Dorothea rich and second wife of ElectorFriedrich Wilhelm they were able to demonstrate a level of prosperity, which went beyond the many smaller principalities. After the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) pledged Elector Friedrich Wilhelm lack of funds, the area around Schwedt for 25,000 dollars to Count Varrensbach who watched his pledge as a yield object. 1670 sparked Electress Dorothea dominion for 26,500 dollars from the pledging, thus creating a basis for the care of her son Philipp Wilhelm. By purchasing another basic rule of possession eventually comprised three towns, three castles, 33 villages and 24 outworks. Electress Dorothea was devoted to the reconstruction of the damaged during the Thirty Years War Schwedt Castle and the economic development of the city and its surroundings. So they recruited a Dutch expert who with the French Huguenots settled founded the tradition of Uckermark tobacco cultivation in the spring 1686th Late 18th century is the Uckermark with 4,400 hectares, the largest contiguous tobacco growing area in Germany and with three cigar factories of the most important economic factor in the area. Dorothea's eldest son Margrave Philip Willhelm  strengthened its domination of intensive and extended the precious features of the castle. His younger brother Carl secretly married the Countess Catherine of Salmour 1695, two months before his death, in northern Italy. This was called a widow Madame de Brandebourg what was particularly processed in the 19th century to several novels, because they refused it, despite the prospect of a high monetary payment by the elector to abandon the title.  The brisk construction activity also continued under the subsequent Margrave Friedrich Wilhelm (the great Margrave). In a large scale of the planned expansion of the residential town now was operated. The last Schwedter Margrave Frederick Henry, the youngest son of Philipp Wilhelm, Schwedt was transformed into a cultural center. With him the line died out in 1788, most of its land ownership reverted to the Prussian crown.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt

1688-1711 Philipp Wilhelm

married to Princess Johanna Charlotte of Anhalt-Dessau
1711-1771 Friedrich Wilhelm
marred to Princess Sophie Dorothee of Prussia
1771-1788 Friedrich Heinrich
married first to Princess Leopoldine Marie of Anhalt-Dessau
married second morganatic to Marie Magdalene Charlotte Kramann, who was created Baroness of Stolzenberg


Kingdom in since 1772 of Prussia

Elector Friedrich III.. used his  sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia, in order to seek there for himself the title of King. He tried especially the equal ranking with the Elector of Saxony, who was also King of Poland, and with the Elector of Hannover, the pretender to the throne of England to preserve. Emperor Leopold I. finally pledged to Friedrich to recoginze him inside and outside of the empire as King. So Elector Friedrich III. crowned himself  on  18.01.1701 as Friedrich I. in Königsberg by his own hand to the "King in Prussia". The price of kingship was the participation of the Royal Prussian Army in the War of Spanish Succession on the side of the emperor against France. The restrictive titulature "in Prussia" was retained because the name would have been called "King of Prussia" as a rule entitled to all of Prussia, thus the split since 1466 German Teutonic Knights, understood. Its western part, the Royal Prussia belonged to Poland. Friedrich I. focused on an elaborate royal household following the french model and brought represented by the three-count Cabinet his state to the brink of financial ruin. Only by leasing further Prussian troops to the Alliance in the War of Spanish Succession, the king could deny the costly expenses for the pomp at court. So Prussia received 14 million dollars in subsidy payments by the Allies during his tenure. The state budget was in 1712 approximately 4 million dollars. 561,000 dollars from that of the royal household were fed exclusively. On the revenue is to be noted that they had only existed in part from taxes and the subsidy payments depended Allied war history and not to be regarded as reliable constant size. A significant increase in the pure tax revenues in the tenure Friedrich I. did not take place. His son  Friedrich Wilhelm I. who succeeded in 1713I was not so magnificent as his father, but predisposed economical and practical. Consequently, he shortened, just out of the death chamber of the father coming, spending on the royal household and dismissed after the funeral, most courtiers. Everything the courtly luxury served was either abolished or supplied other usages. All the King's austerity measures aimed at the development of a strong standing army, in which the King saw the foundation of his power both internally and externally. Of the annual government revenues, he used 73% for ongoing military expenses, while administrative court and had to make do with 14%. During his tenure, he built the Prussian army to one of the most powerful armies throughout Europe from what his calling  "the Soldier King" procured. Given the size of the Prussian army in proportion to the total population, 83,000 soldiers to 2.5 million inhabitants in 1740, Georg Heinrich wrote of Berenhorst later: "The Prussian monarchy remains - not a country that is an army, but an army a country in which they only einquarti [e] rt is to speak." Despite his epithet Friedrich Wilhelm I. led only once in his tenure a short campaign, the Great Northern War during the siege of Stralsund. This campaign brought Prussia to win a portion of Pomerania from the Swedes. Friedrich Wilhelm I. regarded as the real creator of the Prussian civil service.  He revolutionized the management, among other things, the establishment of the General Directorate. He centralized the land which was previously still territorially fragmented, and gave him a uniform governmental organization. Through a mercantilist economic policies, [3] the promotion of trade and commerce, as well as a tax reform the king succeeded to double the annual government revenues of 3.4 to 7 million dollars. To attract the necessary specialists, he introduced compulsory education and instituted economic chairs at Prussian universities; they were the first of their kind in Europe. Was there at the beginning of the reign of the soldier king in 1717 only 320 village schools so there were already 1480 schools in 1740. As part of a massive powered Peuplierungspolitik he allowed people from all over Europe to settle; so he took more than 17,000 Protestant Salzburger and other religious refugees into the sparsely populated East Prussia.When Friedrich Wilhelm I. died in 1740, he left behind an economically and financially secure country. He had Prussia area to 8000 square kilometers to 119,000 square kilometers increased and it is considered to him that the people who had in 1688 still amounted to 1,5 Mio inhabitants, increased to 1740 to 2.4 million. A shadow side of his tenure, however, was the strong militarization of life in Prussia. 
On 31.05.1740  his son Friedrich II. -later known as "Friedrich the Great" -. succeded on the throne  As Crown Prince rather inclined to the philosophy and the fine arts, he still in his first year in the let the Prussian army march into  Silesia to which the Hohenzollern raised controversial claims. In the three Silesian Wars (1740-1763), he managed to maintain the conquest against Austria, in the last, the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), even against a coalition of Austria, France and Russia. This was the beginning of the Prussian great power in Europe and the Austro-Prussian dualism in the kingdom. Already in 1744 the County of East Frisia fell after extinction of the local princely family of Cirksena to Prussia, the existing since 1683 trade relations took advantage to East Frisia. In the last 23 years of his reign to 1786 ending promoted Friedrich II., Which was regarded as the "first servant of the state",  the country's development and further colonization of Brandenburg-Prussian territories around the Oderbruch. The Peuplierung sparsely populated areas east of the Elbe was on the political agenda in the first place. As a representative of enlightened despotism, he managed the torture from, reduced censorship, laid the groundwork for the General Prussian Law and took the granting complete freedom of worship more exiles into the country. In his view, should be in Prussia "everyone to be saved in his own way". In this context, was also known to be saying: "All religions seindt equal and good, wan Noor people, so they profesieren, Ehrlige people seindt, and if Turks and heathens came and wanted pöplieren the country, so we wanted to build Mosqueen and churches." Together with Austria and Russia Friedrich operating the partition of Poland. In the first division in 1772 fell Polish Prussia, the Netzedistrict and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia at Brandenburg-Prussia. Thus, for Friedrich II. Important land connection between Pomerania and the out-of-Empire Kingdom of Prussia was prepared. Now, since "both Prussia", Polish Prussia and the Kingdom of Prussia, were owned by the Hohenzollern monarchy, Friedrich II. called himself king "of Prussia". Administratively, the Kingdom consisted of the provinces of West and East Prussia and the Netze District. The King enlarged its territory during his reign by 76,000 km² 195,000 km² (1786). During this period the population of Prussia increased from about 2.4 million to 5.629 million inhabitants on, despite the loss of about 500,000 people during the Seven Years' War.  Despite a temporary breakdown of the economy by the protracted wars in his reign government revenues increased from 7 million dollars in 1740 to 20 million in 1786 to , Friedrich II. the Great died on 17.08.1786 at Sanssouci Palace.  
As he had no children his nephew Friedrich Wilhelm II. suuceeded him as new King of Prussia. At the court established for the first time in the history of a Prussian court with mistresses and favorites. The most famous mistress was Wilhelmine Enke, which was given by Friedrich Wilhelm II. the title "Countess Lichtenau". He had meet her before he came to power. Berlin grew up in the 1790s to a considerable city zoom. In 1791, the Brandenburg Gate was built by the architect Carl Gotthard Langhans. Other classical buildings followed.The king arose very early under the influence gegenaufklärerischer aspirations, notably Johann Christoph and Johann Rudolf Wöllners of Bischoff Werder, the codetermination strong Prussian policy this time. The much-vaunted tolerance policy of Prussia, at least not particularly strong at this time. In Berlin, although there was the Enlightenment Berliner Wedesday society. But they had to meet on the basis of anti-enlightenment government secretly. Members included the authors of the general land law Carl Gottlieb Svarez and Ernst Ferdinand Klein, the editor of the monthly magazine Gedike Berlinischen and beasts, the publisher Friedrich Nicolai and as an honorary member Moses Mendelssohn. The French Revolution was also here, as throughout the empire, received mostly positive from the educated middle class. However, were those revolutionary and snidely remarked on the Prussian government, established since 1790 either for several weeks or expelled, others emigrated voluntarily. In 1794, the General Land Law was introduced in Prussia. The comprehensive body of law had already begun under Friedrich II.. During the reign of Friedrich Wilhelm II. it lost its enlightened character, but still presented a universal legal basis for all the Prussian provinces represent. The division's policy towards Poland was continued by Friedrich Wilhelm II. and also from Russia and Austria. In the second and the third partition of Poland (1793 and 1795), Prussia further secured areas until Warsaw. This area also increases the population increased by 2.5 million Poles and you faced the difficult task to integrate them into the state. Whether this would ultimately succeeded, can not say conclusively, since the areas of the two last partitions of Poland were lost first under the rule of Napoleon Prussia again. Austria and Prussia approached to during the French Revolution. A first meeting between Leopold II. and Friedrich Wilhelm II. on 27.08.1791 resulted in exposure of the Comte d'Artois, the future french King Charles X, in the Declaration of Pillnitz. In it they declared their solidarity with the French monarchy and threatened with military action, but with the provision that the other European powers would agree to such a step. Proceeding a defensive alliance, the Treaty of Berlin, between Austria and Prussia was signed on 07.02.1792 France declared a short time later, on 20.04. 1792  wat on Austria and therefore  on Prussia. On  20.09.1792 came to the Battle of Valmy, in the Prussian and French troops, although the absence of any direct combat operations, and there were few casualties. The Prussian troops but had to withdraw among the soldiers due to persistent rain weather, disease and hunger. As a result, French troops were able to advance into the Rhineland. Prussia's participation in the First Coalition War against revolutionary France was not until the Peace of Basel in 1795, after which it retired for more than a decade from the anti-French alliance. On 16.11.1797 Friedrich Wilhelm II. died, and was succeeded by his son Friedrich Wilhelm III. It was not until 1806 negotiations with France on the division of spheres of influence in Germany failed, the war flared up again. In the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt Prussia suffered a crushing defeat by the troops of Napoleon I. King Friedrich Wilhelm III. and his family had to flee temporarily to Memel, and the French influence began the so-called "French period". The state lost in 1807 in the Peace of Tilsit, about half of its territory, including areas were all west of the Elbe and the areas of the second and third partition of Poland, which fell now on the new, by Napoléon established Grand Duchy of Warsaw.  At that time Prussia was only a shriveled in size and function buffer state. It endured the french occupation, the foreign troops provide and afford large Kontributions payments to France. These restrictive conditions of peace brought about a renewal of the State with the aim of improving its ability to act, to again become a power of the first rank. For this purpose, the Prussian state had to fundamentally reformed in order to lead a future liberation struggle and win can. With the Stein-Hardenberg reforms led by Baron vom Stein, Scharnhorst and Hardenberg education has been redesigned,  1807, serfdom abolished and 1808 introduced the self-government of cities. 1810 freedom of trade was introduced. The army reform started in 1813 was completed with the introduction of universal conscription. In 1814 the Quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate was returned. After the defeat of the "Grande Armee" in Russia the armistice between Prussia and the Russian Empire from the Prussian Lieutenant General Count Yorck and the General of the Russian army was signed by Hans Diebitch on 30.12.1812 at Tauroggen. Yorck acted here on their own initiative without his king's orders. The Convention of Tauroggen said that Yorck should detach his Prussian troops from the alliance with the French army. In Prussia this was seen as the beginning of the uprising against the French rule. In late February, a antinapoleonischer alliance agreement was signed with Russia in the Treaty of Kalisch. As the people were called to the liberation struggle on 17.03.1813 were 300,000 Prussian soldiers ready. For the duration of the dispute universal conscription was introduced. Prussian troops under Marshal Blücher contributed at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 a decisive contribution to final victory over Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 Prussia regained most of its old territory. A new addition was Swedish Pomerania, the northern part of the Kingdom of Saxony, the province of Westphalia and the Rhine Province. In the new provinces in the west emerged in Koblenz, Cologne and Minden mighty fortresses built by the new prussian fixing manner, to ensure the Prussian supremacy. Although Prussia retained the earlier Polish province of Posen, but lost territories of the second and the third partition of Poland to Russia. Prussia was since two large, but spatially separated blocks of countries in East and West Germany. It became a member of the German Confederation, the loose association of German states under Austrian leadership, which existed 1815-1866. The given during the war of liberation to his people promise to give the country a constitution, Friedrich Wilhelm III solved neve. Unlike in most other German states was created in Prussia no representation of the people for the government. Instead of a regional parliament for the whole of Prussia only county councils were convened. The royal government believed so, to be able to prevent liberal aspirations for a constitutional monarchy and democratic participation rights effectively. Aiming to suppress the democratic aspirations throughout Europe, served in the external sphere, the Holy Alliance, the Friedrich Wilhelm III. called together with the Tsar of Russia and the Emperor of Austria to life.The efforts of the Royal Government to combat liberalism, democracy and the idea of ​​the unification of Germany, however, there were also strong economic constraints so.  Due to the division of its territory lay the economic unification of Germany after 1815 in Prussia own interest. Therefore, there was one in 1834 to the founding members of the German customs union. Consequently, sat outside the country more and more advocates the unification of Germany, especially the Protestants, their hopes that Prussia would take over from Austria  as the leading power of the federal government. It was of "German Prussia broadcast" the speech and the fact that the country is growing more and more into Germany and Austria from Germany. The Prussian government wanted nothing to do with this "mission". Far from to get involved in the political unification of Germany, they even defied the increasingly loud call for a constitution and a parliament for the whole of Prussia. Hopes that the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm IV. had awakened at liberals and supporters of the German unification initially were soon disappointed. The new King made his dislike of a constitution and a total Prussian Parliament no secret. However, the large financial requirements for the construction of the required by the military Ostbahn required the approval of budget funds of all provinces. The King therefore meet a corporative committee, belonged to the representatives of all county councils. However, this Committee stated that he was for the task assigned to him no jurisdiction. Friedrich Wilhelm IV. took therefore, and due to the growing public pressure in spring 1847 finally agreed to convene the long-demanded by the liberals United Diet. The K ing made already in his opening speech, unmistakably clear that he regarded the parliament only as an instrument of grant of money and that he wanted to see discussed no constitutional issues facing his monarchical divine right. He will not let "that God in heaven, and this country, as it eindränge between our Lord a written sheet as a second providence". Since the majority of the parliament but demanded not only the budget authorization law, but also a parliamentary oversight of public finances and a Constitution from the very beginning, the panel was disbanded after a short time again. Prussia was so even before the outbreak of the March Revolution in front of a constitutional conflict.  After the Revolutions in South Germany the Revolution finally reached on 18.03.1848 also Berlin. Friedrich Wilhelm IV., who at first had caused the arrows nor the insurgents, the troops from the city could withdraw and seemed now to bow to the demands of the revolutionaries. The United Diet met again to decide on the convening of a Prussian National Assembly. Simultaneously with the elections to the Prussian took place for the all-German National Assembly, which was to meet in Frankfurt am Main. The Prussian National Assembly had been allotted by the Crown the task, together with you draft a constitution. The Assembly, in the less temperate forces were sitting than in United Diet, the government draft a constitution but not agreed to, but worked with the "Charte Waldeck" of its own design. Not least, the constitutional policy of the Prussian National Assembly led to the counter-revolution, to the dissolution of the Assembly and establishing a imposed Constitution. The latter differed Prussia from Austria, where the constitution was abolished. While the imposed Constitution of Prussia retained some points of the Charter, but turned the other hand central prerogatives of the crown restores. In 1850 it was again revised. Above all, introduced in this three-class franchise, the political culture of Prussia until 1918 decisively influenced. In the Frankfurt National Assembly firstly came from a large German solution: to emerging German Empire should as a matter of course that part of Austria belong, who already belonged to the Bund. Since Austria but was not willing to be separately managed and Constitution in its non-German parts of the country, including the so-called smaller German solution, it was decided that an agreement under Prussia's leadership. Democracy and German unity but failed in April 1849, when Friedrich Wilhelm IV. refused the imperial crown, which had offered to him by the National Assembly. The revolution was finally crushed in West Germany with the help of Prussian troops. After Prussia's failed policy, with the Erfurt Union (1849/1850) to establish a more conservative but constitutional nation-state, forced Austria in the Olomouc punctuation restoring the pre-revolutionary conditions in the German Confederation. During the following Reaktionsära Prussia worked closely with Austria, to combat the liberal and national movement and especially the Democrats
In 1861 Wilhelm I. who already in 1858 had become Regent for  his after several strokes unable to reign brother Freidrich Wilhelm ascended the Prussian throne. With war minister Roon he aspired to a military reform, which provided for extended periods of service and an upgrade of the Prussian army. However, the liberal majority in the Prussian Parliament, the state budget law, for necessary funds, would not consent. It came to a constitutional conflict, pulled the abdication into consideration in the course of the king. As a last resort, he decided in 1862 to appoint Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister. This was a strong supporter of the royal autocracy claim and ruled for many years against the Constitution and Parliament and without a legal budget. The liberal parliament and Bismarck made mutually several proposals of compensation, but refused both repeatedly from. So it happened that Bismarck in 1866, after the victorious war against Austria, an indemnity bill, ie an indemnification statement, presented, in the unapproved budget were approved retrospectively. From the realization that the Prussian crown could gain popular support only if they sat down at the top of the German unification movement, Bismarck Prussia resulted in three wars, the King Wilhelm I. earned the German imperial crown. The King of Denmark was in personal union Duke of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which should remain since the Treaty of Ribe 1460 "op ewig ungedeelt" ("eternally undivided"). Only the Duchy of Holstein belonged to a German fief of the German Confederation, while Schleswig was a Danish fief. The attempt of the Copenhagen government to incorporate Schleswig excluding Holsteins in a new Danish national state, led in 1864 under the leadership of Prussia and Austria for German-Danish War. After the victory of the troops of the German Confederation, the Danish krone in the Treaty of Vienna had to abandon the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. The duchies were initially administered by Prussia and Austria together. After the Gastein Convention of 1865 Schleswig fell under Prussian, Holstein under Austrian administration while Austria sold its rights to the Lauenburg to the Prussian crown. 1866 were Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg combined into the new Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.  Soon after the end of the war with Denmark hassle broke out bettween Austria and Prussia because of  the management and the future of Schleswig-Holstein. However, its root cause was the struggle for supremacy in the German Confederation. Bismarck succeeded to persuade the long hesitant for reasons of loyalty to Austria King William to a military solution. Prussia had already concluded a secret military alliance with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which provided, inter alia, annexations of Austria. This was a clear breach of the law, as the Federal Act of 1815 members of the German Confederation forbade to form alliances against other Member States. After the Prussian invasion of which is under Austrian administration Holstein the Frankfurt Bundestag decided the federal execution against Prussia. Prussia declared for his part the German Confederation as having lapsed and occupied the kingdoms of Saxony and Hanover and Electorial Hesse. On the Austrian side were also the other German kingdoms and more, especially southwestern and central German states. The Free City of Frankfurt as the seat of the Bundestag bowed to the Austrian side, but behaved officially neutral. On the side of Prussia stood beside some northern German and Thuringian small states including the Kingdom of Italy in the warIn the German war won Prussia Army under General Helmuth von Moltke on 03.07.1866 in the Battle of Königgrätz the decisive victory. In Peace of Prague from 23.08.1866 Prussia could dictate its terms and legitimize the annexation of the Kingdom of Hanover, the Electorate of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the Free City of Frankfurt and the whole of Schleswig-Holstein. For the territories, the provinces Hanover, Hesse-Nassau and Schleswig-Holstein were formed. With these annexations now almost all Prussian territories were joined together. The German Confederation, which was in fact already disintegrated by the war, was also formally disbanded in the Peace of Prague. Austria withdrew from the all-German policy. Just five days before the conclusion of peace Prussia north of the Main founded together with the countries of the North German Confederation. Initially a military alliance, gave him the Contracting Parties in 1867 a constitution that dominated him one of Prussia, but made justice become federalism in Germany State. Meanwhile designed by Bismarck constitution adopted in essential points the German Empire anticipate. The King of Prussia was president and the Prussian Prime Minister also Chancellor of the North German Confederation. The time being sovereign lasting southern states had to take "protective and Trutzbündnisse" with Prussia. Increased by the military success Popularity Bismarck had these moved ahead of the founding of the North German Confederation to subsequently request the Prussian Landtag to impunity for the budget-less reign. The adoption of this indemnity bill led to a split of liberalism in a magisterial impaired (National Liberal Party) and a further part of the opposition (German Progress Party as a party Hull). The 1867 furnished by Bismarck tough negotiations and under pressure from the German economy Zollparlament brought the inclusion of South German representatives in a Prussian and North German dominated institution itself. Majority decisions superseded the previously existing in German Zollverein veto of individual states. Bavarian and Württemberg Patriots responded as anxious as the French emperor Napoleon III. As this, however, in return for France standstill policy towards Prussia demanded a territorial compensation, he stoked thus unintentionally distrust the public in the southern states. This in turn strengthened their ties to Prussia.
With vague promises to eventually leave Luxembourg France, Bismarck brouth Napoléon III to tolerate its policy towards Austria. Now France faced a strengthened Prussia, which wanted to know nothing of the former territorial commitments. The relations between the two countries deteriorated visibly. Finally Bismarck sharpened the controversy over the Spanish throne candidacy of the catholic Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern in the affair of the Ems Dispatch consciously so far that the French government declared war on Prussia. This was for the southern German states of Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden and the south of the Main Line still independent Hesse-Darmstadt the Alliance case. After the rapid German victory in the Franco-German War and the ensuing national enthusiasm in Germany now also the South German princes looked forced to join the North German Confederation. Bismarck bought King Ludwig II. of Bavaria with money from the Guelph fund so-called willingness from King Wilhelm I. to bear the German imperial crown. The German Empire was founded as a small German uniform nation-state, which was already provided for as a model agreement by the National Assembly in 1848-49. In the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Wihelm I. I was on 18.01.1871 - the 170th anniversary of the coronation of Friedrich I. - proclaimed German Emperor. 
From 1871 to Prussia went very well in the German Empire on how the German Empire  took Prussian character.  The King of Prussia was German Emperor and the Prussian Prime Minister almost always at the same time the Chancellor of the Empire. The Prime Minister and Chancellor had to but not necessarily Prussian, as the appointment of Clodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst shows. Between 1871 and 1887 led Bismarck in Prussia the so called war oc Cultur, which should push back the influence of political Catholicism. Resistances of the Catholic population and the clergy, particularly in the Rhineland and in the former Polish territories, Bismarck forced but to resolve the dispute without results.  In the inhabited mostly by Poles areas of the War of Cultur has been accompanied by an attempt to Germanization. The Prussian Settlement Commission about trying to buy Polish land with limited success for German settlers. After Bismarck's dismissal, the Germanization was continued by the German Ostmark association, which was founded in 1894 in Poznan. On Wilhelm I. was followed in March 1888, the already seriously ill Friedrich III., who died after a reign of only 99 days. In June of "Three Emperors Year" ascended Wilhelm II. the throne. He dismissed Bismarck in 1890, has set the country's politics from then on largely self.  Wilhelm II. Sought a great power and forced the colonial expansion  The assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28.06. 1914 set in motion events that it triggered immediately the First World War. The monarchy ended in the German Reich on 09.11. 1918 with the proclamation of the Republic in Berlin and the subsequent abdication of Wilhelm II.

KIngs in since 1772 of Prussia

1701-1713
Friedrich I.
married first to Princess Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel
married second to Princess Sohie Charlotte of hannover
married third to Princess Sophie Luise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1713-1740
Friedrich Wilhelm I.
married to Princess Sophie Dorothea of Hannover
1740-1786
Friedrich II. ("the Great")
married to Princess Eslisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern
1786-1797
Friedrich Wilhelm II.
married first (divorced) to Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick
married second to Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt
married third morganatic Julie von Voß who was created Countess of Ingehnheim
married fourth morganatic Countess Sophie of Dönhoff
1797-1840
Friedrich Wilhelm III.
married first to Princess Luise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
married second (morganatic) to Countes Auguste of Harrach zu Rohrau
1840-1861
Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
married to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria
1861-1888
Wilhelm I., since 1871 also German Emperor
married to Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
March-June 1888
Friedrich III., also German Emperor
married to Victoria, Princess Royal of Great Britain and Ireland
1888-1918
Wilhelm II., also German Emperor
married first to Priincess Auguste Victoria of Sleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
married second to Princess Hermine Reuss older line


The Royal House since the End of the Monarchy

On 28.11.1918 Emperor Wilhelm II. signed in the dutch Exile the Abdication. he later bought House Doorn where he then lived until his death in 1941. Crown Prince Wilhelm signed the abidcation for himslef a few days later on 01.12.1918. he was accomidiated by the dutch Goverment on the island Wieringen until he was able to return to Germany in 1923.
A few days after the November revolution in 1918 the assets of the Hohenzollern was seized and administered by the Prussian Treasury. In the dispute over the so-called Prince expropriation the Family negotiated until 1926 with the Prussian state. On 26.10.1926, the "Law on the property dispute between the Prussian State and the members of the former ruling Prussian royal family" was adopted. Furthermore, took place in 1927 the establishment of the "Administration of State Palaces and Gardens". The State of Prussia retained 75 locks, the Hohenzollern got back 39 buildings. the Crown Prince and his Family retained the usage of Cecilienhof Castle for life. This was limted for three generations. Further the former Crown Prince and his Family also lived at Oels Caslte in Siliesia.
The former Crown Prince was reportedly interested in the idea of running for Reichspräsident as the right-wing candidate against Paul von Hindenburg in 1932, until his father forbade him from acting on the idea. After his plans to become president had been blocked by his father, Wilhelm supported the rise to power of Hitler. After the murder of his friend Kurt von Schleicher, the former Chancellor, in the Night of the Long Knives 1934 Crown Prince Wilhelm  withdrew from all political activities. When Wilhelm realized that Hitler had no intention of restoring the monarchy, their relationship cooled. On 04.06.1941 Emperor Wilhelm II. died at House Doorn. According to his own wishes he was buried in a speicail built Mausoleum in the Gardens of the Estate. After the End of the War in 1945 House Doorn was confiscated by the dutch Government. In Janaury 1945 Crown Prince Wilhelm had to leave Cecilienhof. After the End of the War Cecilienhof Castle and the others Castles and Estates which where still owned by the Family where confiscated by the Soviets.   Today, the Brandenburg-Prussian line only ownes yet more than two thirds of the Hohenzollern Castle. Crown Prince Wilhelm lived after the War for a short time at Hohenzollern Castle before he took up residence in Hechingen where he died on 20.07.1951. His successor as Head of the Royal House was his second son Louis Ferdinand. Prince Louis Ferdinand lived with his Family at the Wümmehof in Bremen. In 1952 Prince Louis Ferdinand let Hohennzolern Castle equipe with historically significant objects at the history of Prussia. among other the Crown of the Kings of Prussia. He  left no doubt that in the case of a of the monarchy he would be avalible for the post of Emperor. In 1991 he submitted a request for compensation for expropriated castles in the former Soviet zone of occupation, after a preliminary decision of the Office for the Settlement of Open Property Issues endorsed the request. It was based on a report submitted by Christopher Clark, who ruled that Prince William had "no significant advance" made Nazism. When this was criticized in public, stopped the Brandenburg Ministry of Finance, the process to seek further advice. An important Event was when in August 1991 the coffins of Friedrich II. the Great and his father the Soldierking where brought from Hohenziollern Castle to Potsdam. Prince Louis Ferdinand died on 25.09.1994. His seuccessor became his grandson Prince Georg Friedrich. Louis Ferdinand's two oldest sons Prince Friedrich Wilhelm and Prince Michaeld had to renouce their successrion rights when the married commoner in 1966 btw. 1967. Their younger brother Louis Ferdinand who married in 1975 Countess Donata zu Castell-Rüdenhausen became the new Heir. Two years after his marriage in  1977 he was involved in a severe accident during military maneuvers when he was pinned between two vehicles. Although his leg was amputated, he succumbed several weeks later to the trauma and died on 11.07.1977 leaving behind a pregnant widow and one year old son. The position of Prince Georg Friedrich  as sole heir to the estate of his grandfather was challenged by his uncles, Friedrich Wilhelm and Michael who filed a lawsuit claiming that, despite their renunciations as dynasts at the time of their marriages, the loss of their inheritance rights based on their selection of spouse was discriminatory and unconstitutional. His uncles were initially successful, the Regional Court of Hechingen and the higher Regional Court of Stuttgart ruling in their favour in 1997 on the grounds that the requirement to marry equally was "immoral". However, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany overturned the original rulings in favour of Georg Friedrich's uncles, the case being remanded to the courts at Hechingen and Stuttgart. This time both courts ruled in favour of Georg Friedrich. His uncles then took their case to the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany which overruled the previous court rulings in Georg Friedrich's favour. On 19.10.2005, a German regional court ruled that Georg Friedrich was indeed the principal heir of his grandfather, Louis Ferdinand (who was the primary beneficiary of the trust set up for the estate of Wilhelm II), but also concluded that each of the children of Louis Ferdinand was entitled to a portion of the Prussian inheritance.
Prince Georg Friedrich works for a company specialising in helping universities bring their innovations to market  He also administers the Princess Kira of Prussia-Foundation, founded by his grandmother in 1952. He lives near Bremen and in Berlin. In August 2011 Prince Georg Friedrich married Princess Sophie of Isenburg, the yougest daughter of the Fürst Franz Alexander of Isenburg,. The religious marriage who took place in the Friedenskirche (Church of Peace) in Potsdam was live broadcasted on regional TV. In January 2013 the couple became the parents of twin sons. Prince Carl Friedrich and Prince Louis Ferdinand. In April 2015 a daughter Princess Emma joined the Family. 

Heads of the Royal House since the End of the Monarchy

1918-1941 
Emperor and King Wilhelm II
married first to Priincess Auguste Victoria of Sleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
married second to Princess Hermine Reuss older line
1941-1951
Crown Prince Wilhelm
married to Duchess Cecilie zu Mecklenburg (-Schwerin)
1951-1994
Prince Louis Ferdinand
married to Grand Duchess Kira Kirillowna of Russia
since 1994
Prince Georg Friedrich
married to Princess Sophie of Isenburg



The present members of the Royal Family

All present living members of the Royal Family are descendantd of Empeor Wilhelm II. The all have the Title Prince/Princess of Prussia and when in accordance with the House Law the styl of Royal Higness (HRH).

 
TI & RH Prince Georg Friedrich and Princess Sophie




the sister of Prince Georg Friedrich, Princess Cornelie-Ceile was born a half year after the death of her fater. Since her birth she is mendically handicapped.
HRH Princess Cornelie-Cecile


other descendants of the late Prince Louis Ferdinand:
his oldest son Prince Friedrich Wilhelm who died in 2015 was married from 1967-1971 to Waltraud Freydag. Before his marriage he had to rennouce his dynastic rights for himself and his descendants. From 1976-2004 he was married to Ehrengard von Reden,. In 2004 he married Sibylle Kretschmer.
from the first marriage: 
Prince Philipp, a protestant Pastor, He is married to Anna Christine Soltau and has 6 children.
from the second marriage:
Prince Frierich Wilhelm, he is married to Baroness Anna catharona of Salza and Lichtenau. They have one son Friedrich Wilhelm
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm and
Princess Anna Catharina
Princess Viktoria Luise
Prince Joachim Albrecht
Prince Joachim Albrecht
Prince Louis Ferdinand's second son Prince Michael was married from 1966-1982 to Jutta Jörn. Before his marriage he had to renounce his dynastic rights for himself and his descendants. In 19782 he made a second marriage to Brigitte Dallwitz-Wegner.
From his first marriage he had 2 daughters:
Princess Micaela, married to Jürgen Wessely
Princess Nataly

Prine Louis Ferdinand's youngest son is Prince Christian Sigismund. He married in 1984 Countess Nina zu Reventlov.
They have 2 children
Prince Christian Ludwig
Princess Irina


TRH Princess Irina, Princess Nina, Princess Christian Sigiamund and Prince Christian Ludwig
Photo and Copyright Netty Leistra

Prince Louis Ferinand had also 3 daugthers. Only the oldest of them Princess Marie Cecile, Duchess of Oldenburg is still alive. She was married from 1965-1989 to Duke Friedrich August of Oldenburg.
Duke Friedrich Augusta married in 1991 again to Princess Donata of Prussia, née Countess zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, the mother of Prrince Georg Friedrich and widow of the late Prince Louis Ferdinand jr. 
The 2 other daughers where Prince Kira who was married from 1973-1984 to Thomas Liepsner and Princess Xenia who was married  from 1973-1978 to Per Edvard Lithander.  

Descendants of Crown Prince Wilhelm 
His oldest son was Prince Wilhelm . He made in 1933 a not dynastic marriage to Dorothea von Salvita. Before his marriage he had to renounce his dynastic rights for himself and his decenatns:
They had 2 daughters
Princess Felicitias who died in 2009. She was married from 1952-1978 to Dinnies von der Osten and married again in 1972 to Jörg von Nostitz-Wallwitz
Princess Christa, she is the widow of  Peter Liebes

His third son Prince Hubertus married in 1942 to Baroness Maria of Humboldt-Dachroeden. The marrige was divorced in 1943 and in  the same year Princess Magdalene Reuss. 
They had 2 daughters:
Princess Anastasia, she married inn 1965 Fürst Alois-Konstantin zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg 
Princess Marie-Christine who died in a car wreck at the age of 18

His fourth son Prince Friedrich married in 1945 Lady Brigid Guennes. He and his Family settled in the UK
The had 5 children:
Prince Nicholas, married to Hon. Victoria Mancroft
 
HRH Prine Nicholas

They have four children:
Princess  Beatrice, Princess Florence married to the Hon. James Tollemache, Princess Augusta married to Caspar Helmore and Prince Frederick.

Prince Wilhelm married to Alexandra Blahova.
They have 2 children:
Princess Tatiana, married to Philipp Womack and Prince Frederick

Princess Victoria married to Philipp Achache

Prince Rupert married to Zita Rastegar-Javaheria.
They have 2 daughters:
Pricness Brigid and Princess Astrid.  

Princess Antona, married to Charles Wellesley, 9. Duke of Wellington


Descendants of Prince Adalbert (third son of Empeor Wilhelm II.)
Prince Adalbert was married to Princess Adelheid of Saxe-Meiningen, Among others they had  one son Prince Wilhelm Victor who married Countess Marie Antoinette Hoyos Baroness zu Stichsenstein
They had 2 children:
Princess Marie Louise married to Count Rudolf of Schönburg-Glauchau

Prince Adalbert who made a not dynastic marriage to Eva Maria Kudicke


Prince Adalbert and Princess Eva Maria

They have 3 sons:
Prince Alexander and the twins Prince Christian and Prince Philipp

Prince Christian (with red tie), Prince Alexander and Prince Philipp

Decendants of Prince Oskar (fith son of Emperor Wilhelm II.)
Prince Oscar married in 1919 Countess Ina-Marie of Bassewitz. At first she was only recognized as Countess of Ruppin and got in 1920 the Title of Princess of Prussia.
Prince Oskar and Princess Ina.Marie had four children
Pricne Oskar, he fell in September 1939 in Poland
Prince Burchard married to Countess Eleonore F'ugger of Babenhausen
Princess Herzeleide-Ina-Marie married Prince Karl Biron of Curland
Prince Wilhelm-Karl married to Irmgard von Veltheim. He was Lord Master ot the Johanniter Order.
They had 3 children:
Princess Donata
Prince Wilhelm-Karl
Prince Oskar, who succeeded his fater as Lord Master of the Johanniter Order. He is married to Auguste Zimmermann von  Siefart. 
They have 3 children: Prince Oskar, Princess Wilhelmine and Prince Albert

Descendants of Prince Joachim (youngest son of Empeor Wilhelm II.)
Prince Joachim married in 1916 Princess marei Auguste of Anhalt
From this marrige there was one son Prince Franz Joseph. Prince Franz Joseph was married first from 1950-1946 to Princess Henreitte of Schoenaich-Caroltath. He made then 2 not dynastic marriages first to Luise Hartmann and second to Eva Herrera-Valdeavellano 
He had 2 sons from his first marriage:
Prince Franz Wilhelm, He was from 1976-1986 married to Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia, the Head of the House of Romanov. During this marriage he held the Title and Name Grand Duke Michail of Russia but  since the divorce he uses his prussian Name and Titel:
HRH Prince Freanz Wilhelm,

From his marriage he as one son Georgi. who is both a Prince of Prussia as a Grand Duke of Russia. He is the Heir to the Headship of the House of Romanov.


HIH Grand Duke Georgi of Russia, Prince of Prussia

Prince Franz Friedrich, he was first married to Gurun Wuinckler and is now married to Susann Genske


Princess Susann and HR Pricne Franz Friedrich

Prince Franz Joseph had 2 daughters from his third marriage:
Princess Alexandra, married now to Alberto Reboa Devoto
Princess Désirée married to  Juan Carlos Gamarra y Skeels