18 January 2015

german Houses. The Princely House of Lippe


The Princely House of Lippe

House of Lippe

Since 1905 the members of the Main line have the Title Prince/Princess zur Lippe with the style of Serene Highness (HSH). 

The ancient family of the noble lords of Lippe take their name from the river Lippe, which flows on the southern edge of the Teutoburg Wald, and on whose shores the family possessed its earliest domains.   The earliest traceable ancestor is Hermann I, who is named with his brother Bernhard as "von der Lippe" in a 1123 document. 
Bernhard and Hermann founded  together  1139 to a monastery for Premonstratensian in CappelAfter the death of Bernard in 1158 Hermann  took over Bernhard's dominion. He was a loyal follower of Henry the Lion. Him he also owed his rise: He was Vogt founded his monastery Cappel was also governor of Busdorf and Schötmar.  Hermann's son Bernhard II.   took over the Regency Lippe  after his father's death in the army of the Emperor Friedrich I. in front of Rome. The estate was at that time already in the possession of the original family near the present town of Lippstadt and large parts of the country Lippe. He married in 1167 Heilwig, Countess of Are, which belonged to the Rhenish nobility and connected in another relationship with the House of Hohenstaufen was. His wife's uncle, Friedrich von Ahre, was at that time Bishop of Münster (1152-1168) and became a good friend of the young noblemen. About Friedrich von Ahre as well as its cousin, Herrmann Ahre, the abbot of the monastery Cappenberg, were relatively close ties with the Archbishop of Cologne, Philip I, who was Bernard's feudal lord.
The time from 1177 to 1181 was marked by the Saxon war, culminating in the disagreements of the Saxon duke Heinrich the Lion and the cologne Archbishop Philip of Heinberg. Despite its close ties and proximity to Cologne fought Bernhard II. and his cousin Widukind of Rheda as a follower of Herinrich the Lion in Westphalia and retired as the enmity of his lords, and most other nobles to Westphalia. During the war Bernhard II. became one of the closest companions of Heinrich the Lion.  However, at the same time he used his good relations with the new bishop of Münster, Hermann II., Who still during his tenure (1173-1202) from about 1180 to a close advisor to the Emperor Barbarossa and so after the end of the War became an impoprtant promoter for Bernhard II. From 1179 Bernhard II. destroyed in his immediate surroundings, the possessions of the cologne archbishop. In particular, the nascent currently under construction Medebach was destroyed. The town of Soest could fend off an attack due to the newly built city walls. Following this, Bernhard's troops used to support the Saxon army under the command of Count Gunzelin of Schwerin in northern Westphalia against a united army of the allies of the Cologne princes, the Bishop of Osnabrück and the counts of Tecklenburg and Ravensburg, where the counts of Arnsberg and the Counts of Schwalenberg came to the rescue. Winner of this battle on the Halerfeld ten kilometers from Osnabrück, remained the Saxon army. After this battle, however  
the center of the possessions Bernhard II., The former market area close to the lip Wade (now Nicolaiviertel in Lippstadt) destroyed and the former Nicolai church and its castle in the course of a thrust of Cologne against the followers of Heinrichin 1177. Bernhard II. himself was expelled and fled to the court of Heinrichthe Lion. About him learned Bernhard II. The basics of urban planning, especially the hydraulic engineering know. His impressions he gathered in Braunschweig and Hildesheim, later also in the defense and expansion of the city Neuhaldensleben near Magdeburg. He defended to 1181, the fortress of the Duke in Haldensleben, which was besieged by troops of the Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa. He had to give up this fortress, as the opponents of the river dammed ear and thus put the fortress under water. Bernhard II. And his entourage were able to pull free. Heinrich the Lion was outlawed in 1180 on the court day to Gelnhausen Germany and had to leave. From this point on, breaking the tradition of the life of Bernard II. And sets only 1184 again. The current version of his return to Lippe is facing a version of the historian Paul Leidinger, which assumes that the Bernhard II accompanied the saxonian Duke. Exiled to the English court in Normandy. From there he returned suffering Ingers considers return until 1184 and met at the court day in Cologne Archbishop of Cologne and new Duke of Westphalia Philip of HeinbergLeidinger reasons for its portrayal of the history in that, for the period in question sources about Widukind of Rheda exist, who had hitherto never separated by Bernhard II.. In particular, the act of establishing the monastery Marienfeld indicates the separation of the two friends. In addition, a relief Lippstadt Marienkirche obviously shows Bernhard II. On a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, he should have taken the lion together with Heinrich. At  time of the return of Bernard II. the former market district was probably built on the Lippe again. Although Bernhard had always struggled in recent battles on the side of Heinrich the Lion, but he came to the then very rare privilege, with the approval of the Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa to be able to build a city in the center of his possessions. These were returned to him in the course of clarifications with Philip of HeinbergPerhaps Bernhard II. meet Barbarossa at Ephphania in 1184 at the Diet fixed in Mainz. On the feast of the knighting of the Emperor sons all the nobles of the country, gathered with his retinue; according to different sources should have been gathered from 20,000 to 70,000 people. After a storm, the festival was canceled, however, already on Whit Monday the Emperor withdrew with his entourage back to Gelnhausen. According to tradition, the poet Justinus Lippiensis which reflected the life of Bernard II. In his later as Lippiflorum (Lippe rose, according to the coat of arms of the Lord rose to the lip) named work, Bernhard II was. Also at this festival. He is said to have been the Emperor struck by its elegant appearance and asked him to make a wish. The desire Bernard was to be allowed to build a city on the lip, and Barbarossa should have granted his wish. This story is certainly represented something flowery, at the Imperial permission to city's founding, there is little doubt. Probably it was the advisor to the Emperor, Bishop Hermann II. Of Miinster, thanks that this happened, and also in the mediation with the Archbishop of Cologne, he was probably instrumental. Bernhard II founded  1185 , the town of Lippe (Lippstadt) as the first planned city of Westphalia. Following their example he founded in 1190 as the second city in the country Lippe Lemgo. During this time, Bernhard II. was involved in the founding of the monastery MarienfeldHis friend Widukind of Rheda 1189 took part in the Third Crusade with the Emperor Barbarossa and died on this. As Widukind heritage Bernhard was given dominion over Rheda, and his bailiwick was transmitted through the monasteries Liesborn and FreckenhorstApproximately 1192 procured Bernhard II. Permission to build the Falkenburg at Falkenberg within the Episcopal forest area spell, with all rights between the bishopric of Paderborn and divided it were. Through illness, become incapable of governing Bernhard handed the 1194 rule to his son Hermann IIand then went as a monk in the Cistercian monastery founded by him in 1185 Marienfeld. Around 1210 he became abbot in Dünamünde and eventually 1218-1224 Bishop of Selonien in the Baltics. End of April 1224, died Bernhard II.. His son Hermann II. who had already been his co-regent followed him in 1196 as Regent. Hermann II. was less warlike than his father and brother, he tried in his area often to act as a mediator. In the German throne war in 1198 Hermann II. stood up to the guelf side and did not leave until 1214 Emperor Friedrich II. On. He probably belonged to other knights of the Great Society Otto IV. (R. 1198-1218), which is why his coat of arms (the setting for the Lipper Rose) also appears on the Quedlinburg box of this Emperor1217/18 Hermann became for his  brother Otto II., Bishop of Utrecht, Utrecht canopnadministrator, promoted the cities and won  Clarholz and Herzebrock. A particular opponent of Hermann was the expanding Archbishop of Berg-Cologne  Engelbert II of Berg, even though Hermann had previously been his close follower. 1227 Hermann took part in the Battle of Bornhöved against Denmark. Later, he supported his brother Gebhard II., Archbishop of Bremen, in a feud against the Stedingers farmers. As the leader of an archbishop army he was killed on 25.12.1229 the Battle of Hasbergen. His sucessor became his oldest son Bernhard III. who called himself since 1232 "by the grace of God" and sometimes even "Count".  Bernhard was like his brothers and his grandfather Bernhard IIwarlike. 1254-1256 he was acting Administrator of the con vent  Paderborn. He  was the real founder of the territorial dominion Lippe  and won through his brother Simon I. Bishop of Paderborn important positions added, so that he could rearrange the church with its help. 
The cities of Horn and Blomberg were promoted by him. With Lippstadt he was in a feud, because there he could not build the castle. Bernhard III. led feuds against the Ravensberg,  Sternberg, and against the house Waldeck. The House of Lippe was greatly weakened under his leadership by these frequent feuds.
After the death of Bernhard III. there weas an inheritance Dispute between his sons and therfore the Territory was split:
  • Bernhard IV. got Horn and the Estern part of the Lippe Territory. He had already since 1254 been Regent of Rheda since
  • Hermann III. got Lippstadt and Rheda 

When Hermann III. died without Issue in 1274 Bernhard IV. inherited the Territories of his brother.  Together with hzis uncle, Bishop Simon I of Paderborn, he participated in the Battle of Zulpich part against the house Jülich, when his uncle was captured. He replaced him in 1269, thus establishing the debt of the house Lippe. 

At times he was guardian in Ravensberg, had arguments with Lippstadt as a member of the Rhenish Confederation and was lord of the free court Wesensfort. His successor was his only son Simon I who in 1302 he suffered in a territorial dispute against the Bishops of Münster, Osnabrück and Paderborn and the Counts of Ravensbergand the city Herford  a defeat. Which meant that he had to grind the belongings of Castle Enger . The reason for the conflict were complaints about his alleged raids that primarily the pin area of Osnabrück was affected. There was an alliance between Ludwig von Ravensberg (Bishop of Osnabrück), his brother, Count Otto von Ravensberg, the bishops of Paderborn, Münster and the city of Herford. At first he was shut up in his castle 1302 and besieged until the building was finally taken. Simon I. was captured and held in the Osnabrück Bucksturm. After one and a half years, he was released. He was required in the castle to grind. In 1323, he expanded the territory through the acquisition of the castle Varenholz and Montgoger Report Creation Langenholzhausen. Under his reign the rule lip gained its greatest territorial Expansion.
After his death in 1344 the Territory was split under his three sons#
  • Bernhard  became Prince-Bishop of Paderborn
  • Otto got the part around Lemgo
  • Bernhard V. got the part around Rheda. After his death around  his widow Richarda gave his first husband of her oldest daughter, Otto VI. ogf Tecklenburg. 1366 revoking the surrender and certain her nephew Simon III. the Lippe heir. However, Otto V. refused to disclose the heritage which a decades-long struggle triggered eventually ended in favor of Tecklenburg
In Lemgo had already succeeded Otto's son Simon III.  His reign in the surrounding area but initially remained uncertain. Still on December 27, 1368 declared the Burgmannen the sovereign castles and representatives of the cities horn, Detmold and Blomberg in Pactum unionis that they would recognize in all future only those heirs as sovereign, to whom the most important cities in the rule, namely Lippstadt and Lemgo, had agreedIn the home country to the cities Lippstadt and Rheda however, the situation was difficult, because after the death of his uncle Bernhard around 1365, his widow Richarda whose legacy handed the first husband of her oldest daughter, Otto VI. of Tecklenburg. 1366 revoking the surrender and named her nephew Simon heir. However, Otto V. refused to disclose the heritage and triggered a decades-long struggle from. Here in 1371 Simon  came into Otto's captivity.  After his release some three years later he had to pay such a high ransom that he had in 1376 Lippstadt half of his mother, the Counts of Mark's family to pledgeThe rule Rheda with the legal capacity since 1355 Rheda and additional property was in 1379 by the allied troops short of the dioceses of Paderborn, Münster, Osnabrück, Münster and Osnabrück and the cities of Engelbert III. conquered by the cord. However, it was not to Simon III. passed, but went back for a payment of 8000 florins to Otto von TecklenburgAround 1400, Simon brought by pledging first cities and Barntrup Salzuflen and the Sternberg Palace under his rule. 1405 finally came the whole county SternbergThe attempt to take over by a inheritance contract  the county Everstein was unsuccessful. After Eversteiner feud with the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1408, the county finally fell to Brunswick. Sucessor of Simon III. was his oldest son Bernhard VI. who reigned only for 5 years before he was succeeded by his son Simon IV. When in 1424 Count Adolf IX. of Schaumburg tried to recover the already in 1400 pledged to the noblemen of Lippe  County Sternberg with violence, was in a bitter feud the Extertal and the Church and Castle in Bösingfeld destroyed, but  Simon IV. succeeded by appropriate countermeasures, the county Sternberg Claim.  Because at the time of his death in 1429 his heir Bernhard was not even a year old Bernhard VII. he was until 1446 under the guardianship  of his uncle Otto, afterwarsd under that of great-uncle, the Archbishop of Cologne Dietrich II. of Moers, and the bailiff may be established by Johann von MöllenbeckBernhard graduated in 1444 with the Duke Adolf of Cleves-Mark an agreement under which he relinquished this the previously pledged Lippstadt half. At the same time an alliance was established between the two houses, the Bernhard involved in the so-called Soest feud with the Archbishop of Cologne Dietrich. The latter called 1447 a Bohemian military assistance, which devastated the country and the city of Lippe Blomberg made nearly equal to the ground, the cities of Lippstadt and Soest but in vain besiegedAfter the 1449 settlement of the dispute Bernhard first lived at the castle Blomberg. 1468 he chose Detmold, then with about 350 inhabitants, the smallest of the Lippe cities to its permanent residence. At the subsequent reconstruction of the castle reminds inter alia an inscription in old castle tower of the Detmold castle with the year 1470.  Bernhard fought his feuds with changing opponents and allies. So he made in 1469 to the Landgrave Ludwig II. of Hesse assistance against those brother Heinrich III., But was on the other hand, one of the main pillars of his brother Simon, the Prince-Bishop of Paderborn, against Landgrave Ludwig II. during 1464 because of the Calenberg Castle broken and up 1471 lasting Hesse-Paderbornische feud. After his death in 1511 he was succeeded by his oldest son Simon who was raised to the rank of a Count in 1528.

County of Lippe-Detmold


In 1528 Lord Simon V. of Lippe was raised to a Count of the Empire and therefore the Lordshiop Lippe became one of the Counties of the Holy Roman Empire.
After the Reformation had initially prevailed more and more in Lemgo, and then in other cities since 1518 came in 1530 to open conflict, as a Protestant hymns were sung during the Catholic Easter mass. Simon, who remained Catholic all his life, was incensed and spoke of "seditious] farmers who want to tolerate no authority over themself." However, he was a vassal of two lords: the Bishop of Paderborn and the since 1524 Lutheran  Landgrave Philip of Hesse and thus limited in its freedom of action. The approach to the Lutheran confession was also aided by the strong position of the cities, especially Lippstadt and Lemgo, against the sovereign. Philip of Hesse exhorted the Lemgoer citizens have to obey the sovereign satisfaction, yet the Lutheran Confessions spread from 1532 also in the other cities further. When Simon V. in 1533 sought support for military action against Lemgo, Philip took a conciliatory. In the same year Lemgo took over the Brunswick church order and became officially Lutheran. 
Simon V. and Duke Johann III. of Cleves raided in 1535 Lippstadt who had become Protestant.  The city capitulated to their rulers. Also in Lemgo fear grew in front of a military action, but it was not because of the ongoing mediation to Philip. When Count Simon V. died in 1536 his oldest son and heir Bernhard was only 8 years old. Because he could at that Age not take over the goverment himself he came under a guardianship which was led by  Landgrave Philip of Hesse, Count Adolph von Schaumburg and Jobst II. of Hoya , who educated  Bernhard in the Protestant faith.  In  Bernhard VII. then took over  the government of the County Lippe and tried especially to consolidate the  Protestant faith in his county during his tenure. This met with disfavor of the Emperor Karl V, whose troops during the War Schmalkaldischen (1546-1547), the country of Count occupied and after the defeat of the Protestant side in 1548, the Augsburg Interim penetrated. As a result, Lippe became a direct fiefdom. 1555 Bernard himself visited the Reichstag in Augsburg and in 1556 he called a meeting of the Protestant clergy in his county. 1556 he also explained to Count Johann von Rietberg war and besieged his court until 1557.  In  1559 Bernhard handed the Burg Sternberg to his brother Hermann Simon as Paréage. Then, the Schaumburg began their dispute over inheritance.  Wehen Copunt Bernhard VII. died in 1563 his oldest son Simon VI. was still a minor and therfore his great-uncle Simon Hermann took opver the regency until 1579.  Simon was a wise, towards the new sciences more open Renaissance Prince, who corresponded with many figures of the time, such as with Tycho Brahe and Jost Bürgi. For the Emperor Rudolph II., whose Councilor and Chamberlain he was, he took over diplomatic missions such as mediation of princely inheritance disputes. He also acted as an intermediary and agent mainly of paintings from the Netherlands.  1584-1589 was the Castle Brake, who was pledged to 1562-1570 Christoph von Donop, into a castle in the shapes of the Weser Renaissance. She stayed until the death of the Count seat of government. 1600 joined the Dutch fortress builder Johan von Rijswijck in the service of Simon VI. Under Simon VI. the county of Lippe 1605 was reformed. This led to major inconsistencies with the Free and Hanseatic City of Lemgo, which had become Lutheran in 1522. Lemgo defied the edict to accept the reformed faith, and it came to the "Lemgoer revolt". The religious controversy was only in 1617 ended with the Röhrentruper recessSimons library served the court representation, but was also the collection of a professional politician and diplomat with theological and historical works and philosophical staatstheroretischer and jurisprudential literature, the later the foundation of Lippe library Detmold made where it is kept today.
Count Simon VI. married first in 1578 Armgard von Reitberg who died in 1585. There was no Issue from this marriage. In 1585 he made a scond marriage to Countess Esliabeth of Holstein Schaumburg, a daughter of Count Otto IV. of Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg. They had several descendants.
Count Simon VI. formally intoduced the right t of primogeniture, which had been effectively in force in his house for a while, through a law of 1593 approved by the Emperor.  However, in 1597 he wrote a Testament that contradicted the spirit, if not the letter, of primogeniture.  He had at the time four sons, and he instituted the eldest Bernhard  as his successor in the government and gave him the largest share of the domains; but he gave to the younger sons some domains: Simon  was to receive Brake, Blomberg, Varntrup; to Otto  would go Schwalenberg, Schieder and half of the bailiwick of Oldenburg; and to Hermann  the castle and bailiwick of Bienburg, the bailiwick of Lipperode, Alberdissen and Uhlenburg, as well as an annual rent of 2000 Thaler.  Sons born later would receive a cash payment only.   Philipp who was born after the will received lands because the death of Bernhard before his father led to a readjustment of the portions.After Simon VI's death in 1613 the difficulties between the brothers began over the degree of subordination of the younger brothers to the eldest. The mediation of their maternal uncle Ernst of Holstein-Schaumburg brought a first agreement in 1614 wherein the eldest brother made significant concessions.   At the death without issue of Hermann in 1620 a new agreement was made on 25.01.1621
  • Simon VII. took over the County Lippe and brought the residence back to Demold
  • Otto he got  Brake, Varntrup, Blomberg and Schieder and founded the Lippe-Brake. The line became extinct in 1709.
  • Philipp he got Lipperdoe and Alverdissen. In 1640 he inherited from his sister Countess Elisabeth of Holstein-Schaumburg parts of the County Schaumburg. He is the founder of the line Schaumburg-Lippe

Count Simon VII. who was the secondborn son of Count Simon VI. was in 1601 along with his older brother Bernhard educated at the court school to Kassel. After Bernard's early death in 1602 he was brought home to Brake and introduced by his father systematically in the business of government. 1617 ended Simon VIIbitter dispute that "Lemgoer revolt", he had inherited from his late father Simon VI. with the City of Lemgo in the  Röhrentruper recessDuring the Thirty Years' War  Simon tried to stay out of his small country as far as possible from the turmoil of war by remained neutral. To a large burden on the population however, there was in the time of war by the billeting and the associated obligations..
Count Simon VII. was married twice. First he married Countess Anna Katharina of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein.  Later he made a second marriage to Countess Maria Magdalena of Waldeck-Wildungen
He had several children
From the first marriiage:
  • Simon Ludwig, who followed his father as Count.
  • Marie Elisabeth, married to Count Christian Friedrich of Mansfeld-Hinterot
  • Anna Katharina, married to Fürst Friedrich of Anhalt-Harzgerode
  • Johann Bernhard, he succeed as Count of Lippe-Detmold
  • Otto Heinrich (murdered)
  • Hermann Adolf, succeded his brother Johann Heinrich as Count of Lippe-Detmold
  • Juliana Ursula
  • Johann Ludwig
  • Friedrich Philipp
  • Magdalena
  • Simon
From the scond marriage:
  • Christian
  • Sofie Elisabeth, married to Count Georg Wilhelm of Leiningen-Westerburg
  • Jobst Hermann, founder of the line Lippe-Biesterfeld

County of Lippe-Detmold


When Count Simon VII.  died in 1627, his oldest son Simon Louis was not yet mature, and as guardian his step-grandfather, Count Christian of Waldeck  was determined. His uncle, Count Otto of Lippe-Brake due to the strained relationship between Detmold and Brake and Count Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar because of his Catholic faith, were not available. In 1627 the young count entered on the civil standard grand tour that took him to Prague, France, England and the Netherlands. Upon his return in 1631 premature emancipation with the Emperor Ferdinand II was requested..
Under the influence of his chancellor Christoph Ludwig Simon Deichmann was gradually on the cautious neutral policy of his late father and approached in Sweden. This brought him into disrepute at the Imperial. But also by the other party do not stay spared the county lip; Sweden demanded supplies supplies such as the Imperial contributions. The Count's family got the hardness of the burdens of war even clearer and more direct feel uncomfortable, but by official commitments, 1634. Schwalenberg Castle and Castle 1636 Varenholz were attacked and looted. Count Simon Ludwig died on 08.08.1736 from the smallpock.
Count Simon Ludwig was married to Countess Katharina of Waldeck, a daughter of his guardian.  When Count Simon Ludwig died in 1636 his oldest son Simon Philip and his brothers were still in infancy. Countess Katharina sought legal custody for her  sons, but because she herself was not yet of age to 24 years it should be her father, Count Christian ofWaldeck, be used as a guardian. But then Count Johann Bernhard, brother of the late Count, sought to take opver  the guardianship of his nephew and the regency in the Country.  Fearing for the lives of their sons  Countess Katharina sat with the Hesse-Darmstadt urban troops that were just being in Lemgo and Rinteln, in combination, and in 1638 hijacked a Hessian captain the young princes and brought them to Lemgo and Hamelin ("Prinzenraub "). Later, they were placed in the care of the Landgrave Georg II. of Hesse-Darmstadt to Marburg. George's paternal grandmother was a sister of Simon VI. of Lippe.  To protect against the war events, the princes were in 1645 brought to safety to Gießen.  There, however, decreased by smallpox, followed in 1646 the younger brothers of Simon Philip died. Then let his mother, Katharina - she had remarried Philipp Ludwig von Holstein-Wiesenburg and was now Duchess of Holstein - her son in 1647 "kidnap" a second time. In a roundabout Simon Philipp returned back to Detmold. Here he became engaged to the 7-year-old Countess Elisabeth Charlotte of HolzappelFrom 1649 Philipp Simon traveled to Paris, Grenoble, Rome, Milan and Florence. In Florence, he contracted smallpox and died 1650 in it. Since he died without issue, his uncle, Johann Bernhard became the  rightful ruler of the County Lippe. Count Johann Bernhard reigned not long over the County as he died already in 1652. As he was unmarried his younger brother Hermann Adolf. Count Hermann Adolf  completed in 1659 the expansion of the castle Horn with a magnificent baroque portal through which the arms of his family and his wife are attached.  Under his rule, the majority of the Detmold witch trials took place: 1653-1654 five Hexereianklagen, from 1654 imprisonment of 52 "magic children" in Detmold School House, 1657-1661 twelve trials in 1666 and 1669 charges against two men charged with sorcery.  1663-1664 he participated in the 4th Austrian Turkish war by sending a company of 140 mercenaries. After the peace of Eisenburg the soldiers returned in December 1664 back home.
Count Hermann Adolf was married twice. First he married in 1748 Countess Ernestine zu Ysenburg-Büdingne-Birstein- After her death he made a second marriage to Countess Amalie zur Lippe-Brake.
He had children from his first marriage:
  • Simon Heinrich, who followed his father as Count
  • Anna Maria, died young
  • Sophie Ernestine
  • Johanna Elisabeth, married to Count Christoph Friedrich of Dohna-Lauck


Count Hermann Adolf died in 1665 and his son Simon Heinrich followed him as Regent. On 15.09.1666 Count Simoin Heinrich  married in The Hague Baroness Amalia of Dohna- Vianen,  Herdeitary Countess Utrecht, Heiress  of Vianen and Ameiden,  daughter of General Christian Albrecht von Dohna1683-1685 he replaced at today Augustendorf hunting CastleLonopshorn  built by his father in 1657  through by a representative hunting Castle with symmetrically arranged around a courtyard outbuildings. The designed in Palladian classicism complex consisted of a simple two-storey building with a mezzanine floor, which was flanked by two single-storey barn buildings. In the stables, the Senner stud was founded in the 16th century was housed. The complexfell on 11.07.1945 an arson attack of prisoners of war victims and was demolished in 1947.
Count Simon Heinrich and Countess Amalie had the following children:
  • Freidrich Adolf, followed his father as Count
  • Ferdinand Christian, married to Henriette Ursula von Dohna
    • Friedrich Alexamder married to Countess Friederike Adolfine zur Lippe-Dtmold
      • Friedrich Christian
      • Simon Ludwig
  • Henrietta Sofie, died as child
  • Heinrich Ernst, died young
  • Johanna Sofie, died as child
  • Albertine, died as child
  • Charlotte Albertine, married to Count Karl of Wied-Runkel
  • Wilhelm Simon, died as child
  • Theodor August, died as child
  • Christof Ludwig
  • Karl Emil, fell in the battle near Malplaquet
  • Simon Karl, fell in the battle of Höchstädt
  • Sofie Florentine, married to Count Maximilian Heinrich of Wied-Runkel
  • Freda Henriette, died as child
  • Wilhelm Karl. died as child
  • August Wolfhart, imperial Lieutenant

Count Simon Heinrich died on 02.05.1697. His sucessor became his oldest son Friedrich Adolf. Count Friiedrich Adolf broke with the tradition of his predecessors to meet its military commitments towards the Empire by paying Subsidiengeldern and build his  own lippische company lippische on. This has since been expanded beyond the level required by the Empire  addition to battalion strength. During his reign the troops but did not play. The reward of his followers apparently took place through generous donation of goods. So he enfeoffed on 16.06.1699 Frantz Dietrich Bohsen with the village Ilendorf between Pömbsen and Nieheim, with the Court to Döring field, with the tithes to Wintrup and the tithes for the Great Heisten. In 1712 he enfeoffed the sons of his lieutenants Johann Adolf von Schledorn with the Wickenhof to AnroechteFriedrich Adolf took in October 1698 the Hamburg Baroque painter Hans Hinrich Rundt in his services. This painted a number of portraits of the count's family and furnished with luxurious modifications of the residential palace rooms with wall and ceiling paintingsCount Friedrich Adolf  was a typical ruler of the Baroque. Its construction overwhelmed the country's finances. The Russian Tsar Peter said to have told the Count during a 1716 of this out richtenen free shooting in Bad Pyrmont: "Your Lordship is too large for this country.His most famous project, the Friedrichstaler channel is still visible today in Detmold and is a popular Sunday walk for the Detmolder. The Dutch hydraulic engineering specialist Hendrick Kock was responsible for the construction of canals. Favorite Castle, located on the canal and part of the plant is used by the Hochschule für Musik Detmold since 1954. The subsequent, English-style and under protection, palace garden was made in 1919 accessible to the public. From the Garden Friedrichstal only the Mausoleum at Büchenberg, the new pitcher and the crooked house remained on the site of today's open-air museum Detmold. In order to provide the appropriate framework of this project, let the count against the south gate a cavalier house, built today Lippischer yard and a number of new houses, today's New Town.
Count Friedrich Adolf married in 1692 Countess Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg. After her death he married inj 1700 Countess Amalie zu Solms-Hohensolms

from the frist marriage:

  • Simon Heinrich Adolf,. followd his father as Count
  • Karl Friedrich
  • Amalia, died as child
  • Charlotte Amalie, died as child
  • Leopold Hermann, died as child
  • Friedrich August

from the second marriage:

  • Amalie Luise
  • Elisabeth Charlotte, Abbess of St. Marien in Lemgo
  • Karl Simon Ludwig, died young
  • Franziska Charlotte, married to Count Friedrich Belgicus Karl of Bentheim-Steinfurt
  • Maximilian Heinrich, died as child
  • Karl Josef, died young
  • Friederike Adolphine, married to Count Friedrich Alexander zur Lippe-Detmold




Count Friedrich Adolf died in 1718 and was succeeded by his oldest son Simone Heinrich Adolf.  Count Simond Heinrich Adolf took 1715 he took part in the Turkish campaign of Prince Eugen of Savoy  in Hungary and in Belgrade and returned via Vienna back to Detmold, He became famous by the fact that in 1720 he should by elevated tio an Imperial Prince by  Emperor Karll VI , but this could not be executed because he could not afford necessary to do 4400 Reichstaler. Chronic lack of money forced him in 1725, the Dutch dominions indebted Vianen and Ameide to sell and the Burg Sternberg 1733 pledge to the Electorate of Brunswick-LüneburgHistorians judge that he was inferior to his father magnificence about anything. Although he was in continual financial embarrassment, each party had to be equipped with a waste when you disponer inexhaustible sources of money. This is the opinion of the best expert in Lippe history after two hundred years.  Quite different was the verdict of Lippstadt Mayor Möller 1784, who Held to his efforsts that he had immediately begun to improve the state economy and the eradication of large debts that are still stemmed in part from the Thirty Years' War, and partly through charitable generosity by befitting education and care for all family members had arisen. Not by taxes and oppression of the subjects, but by borrowing, by selling the Dutch dominions in 1725 and the pledge of Sternberg in 1733, he brought the whole state farm buildings back in order and led everywhere a wise economy. He used uncommon attention to the welfare of his country, promoted vigorously religion, morality, justice and prosperity in all his subjects.

Count Simon Heinrich Adolf married Countess Johanna Wilhelmine of Nassau-Idstein.

They had the following children:

  • Elisabeth Henriette Amalie, Abbess of the Monastery Cappel and the Monastery Lemgo
  • Luise Friederike
  • Karl August, died as child
  • Henriette Auguste, married to Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg
  • Karl Simon Friedrich, died as child
  • Simon August, succeeded his father as Count
  • Friedrich Adolf, died as child
  • Charlotte Clemente, Abbess
  • Ludwig Heinrich Adolf, married first to Princess Anna of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld, married second to Couuntess Luise zu Isenburg and Büdingen in Philippseich
  • Georg Emil
  • Wilhelm Albrecht August Ernst, married to Wilhelmine von Trotha
    • Auguste

Count Simon Heinrich August died in 1734. As his oldest surviving son Simon August was not yet of age he reigned until 1747 under the guardianship of his mother. Under the influence of the Enlightenment, he issued a new household, social and legal environment and led 1749 lip along with Adolf von Hillensberg a budget in order not to spend more, were as revenue available. The Sparkasse Detmold and the country Brandversicherungsanstalt perform their tradition today back to first foundations of Simon of August. He acquired the Saline Salzuflen and built Meinberg to the spa. In 1775 he established a relief fund for needy subjects. A census of 1776 consisted of 49,416 inhabitants his country.
Count Simon August was married four times. First he  married in 1750 Princess Polyxena Louise of Mssau.-Weilburg. After she died in 1765 he married in 1765 Princess Marie Leopoldine of Anhalt-Dessau who died in 1769. In the same year he married again to Princess Kasimire of Anhalt-Dessau. In 17u80 he married as his fourth wife Princess Christine zu Solms-Braunfels
from the first marriage:
  • Wilhelmine Caroline, died as child
from the second marriage:
  • Leopold, succeeded his father as Count
from the third marriage:
  • August
Count Simon August died on 01.05.1782 when his oldest son Leopold I was only 14 years old. He was regarded as a difficult child who learned hard, he rebelled against the upbringing and was obstinate. They gave him for improvement to Dessau in the care of his uncle Fürst Leopold III. of Anhalt-Dessau, the oldest brother of his mother. There he was sent to Basedow famous philanthropist, then 18 to the University of Leipzig. Everywhere was the same unfavorable judgment: lack of strength of character, stupidity, flaccidity, discontinuity in the industry, lack of interest, lack of concentration, tendency to insanity.On 05.11.1789 the new 21years old Leopold took over government. First, he cashed the still remaining Princes Letter which was requested by his grandfather Simon Heinrich in 1720,  by paying the costs required for this.


Lippe-Biestefeld

Count Jobst Hermann took the bailiwicks of Schwalenberg, Stoppelberg and Oldenburg as advance on his father's inheritance, but his descendants were far from satisfied and continued to demand half of the Lippe territories and back income, Count Jobst Hermann married Countess Elisabeth Juliane zu Sayn-Wittgenstein. From his several sons only one Count Rudolf Ferdinand was married to Countess Juliane Luise of Kunowitrz and had Issue.

He had among others 2 sons. The 2 brothers  signed two agreements, one on 28.02. 1734 whereby the younger son ceded to the older the government of both Schwalenberg and Oldenburg against a pension of 2200 Thaler, and anoter on 14.08 1749 whereby the younger son ceded all his possessions in exchange for another 2200 Thaler per year. Finally an agreement came on 24.05.1762 between the senior line and the line descended from Jobst Hermann, specifying that the two brothers ceded all their possessions in Schwalenberg, Oldenburg and Stoppelberg, and all their claims, against an annual rent of 15,000 Thaler to be shared 2/3 for Friedrich zu Biesterfeld and 1/3 to Ferdinand  zu Weissenfeld, and the two brothers recognized the house laws and the rule of primogeniture.  The younger brothers retained their succession rights, first Friedrich and his issue, then Ferdinand and his issue.
Count Friedrich was the last Lord of Biesterfeld. During his reign, he had the manor's brewery moved from Schwalenberg to Biestereld and added a distillery, investing the princely sum of 6000 taler in this endeavour. In 1763, he constructed a hunting lodge, named Friedrichsruh after himself. The nearby village was later renamed after the hunting lodge. However, the hunting lodge was demolished in 1859 to make room for a guest house. Otto von Bismarck later purchased Friedrichsruh and attached it to his manor Sachsenwald. He expanded the guest house to a castle, which is still named Friedrichsruh Castle.
Count Friedrich was married to Countess Barbara zu Solms-baruth.
The had the following children:
His descendants had the Title Count/Coubntess zur Lippe-Biestefeld. when the Lippe-Detmold line became extinct in the male line in 1905 they got the Title Prince/Princess zur Lippe with the style of Serene Highness (HSH).
  • Wilhelmine, married first to Count Seyfried of Promnitz, second to Count Johann Christian zu Solms-Baruth
  • Simon Rudolf Ferdinand, died Young
  • Karl, Count and Lord zur Lippe-Biesterfeld, married to Countess Ferdinande zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda
    • Karl Freidrich, died young
    • August Ludwig, died young
    • Hermann Ferdinand Casimir, died young
    • Ernst, Count and Lord zur Lippe-Biesterfeld, married to Modeste von Unruh
      • Elisabeth Karoline, died young
      • Ernestine, died young
      • Paul Karl
      • Agnes, married first to Prince Carl Biron of Kurland, second to Count Leopold of Zieten
      • Julius, married to Countess Adelheid zu Castel-Castell
        • Ernst Kasimir, died young
        • Emilie, married to Fürst Otto zu Salm-Horstmar
        • Ernst, he became in 1897 Regent of the Principality Lippe
        • Adalbert
        • Matilde
        • Leopold, married to Countess Frieda of Schwerin
        • Kasimir
        • Oskar, died young
        • Johanna, died young
        • Friedrich, married to Princess Marie zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-
          Freudenberg
          • Adelheid, married to Prince Heinrich of Schönburg-Waldenburg
          • Olga, married to Count Konrad zu Erbach-Erbach
          • Marie, married to Fürst Karl zu Ysenburg and Büdingen i Büdingen
        • Elisabeth, died young
        • Rudolf, married to Princess Luise of Ardeck
          • Friedrich Wilhelm, married to Goldela von Oeven
            • Rudolf, married to Beatrice Colonna di Giovellina
              • Friedrich
          • Ernst Julius, fell in the First World War
          • Marie Adelheid, married first (divorced) to Prince Heinrich XXXII. Reuß, second divorced) Prince Heinrich XXXV. Reuß, third (divorced) Hanno Konopath
        • Fredrich Wilhelm, married to Countess Gisela zu Ysenbrug and Büdingen in Meerholz
          • Calixta Agnes, married to Prince Waldemar of Prussia
          • Barbara Eleonore, married to Count  Nikolaus of Luckner
          • Simon Kasimir, married to Ilse Splittgerber
      • Mathilde
      • Emma
      • Hermann
      • Leopold
    • Johann Karl, married to Bernhardine von Sobbe, created Frau von Sobbe
      • Johanna, married to Heinrich Max von Röder
      • Pauline Luise
      • Konstantin, married to Baroness Wilhelmine von Vincke'
        • Jenny, died young
      • Bernhard, died young
      • Karl Friedrich
  • Freidrich Wilhelm, he made a morganatic marriage to Johanna von Meinertshagen, she weas created Barones of Meinertshagen
  • Marie Wilhelmine Henriette, died Young
  • Ludwig Heirnich, he made a morganatic marriage to Elisabeth; who was created Countess zur Lippe-Falkenflucht
    Their descendants bear the Title Count/Countess zur Lippe-Falkenflucht

    Issue




Lippe-Weissenfeld

Count Ferdinand zur Lippe-Weissenfeld is the ancestor of the Junior line-Lippe-Weissenfeld. He had his resdience at Saßleben Castle in Brandenburg. He was married to Countess Ernestine zu Solms-Baruth.  They had several sons and there are still plenty of descendants of the in the male line.
Members of this line were granted the title of Prince/Princess and a style Serene Highness (HSH) for the family of Count Clemens zur Lippe-Weissenfeld and his descendants on 24.02.1916 and again on 09.11.1918 for all other members of this line.
  • Friedrich Count and Lord zur Lippe-Weissenfeld, married first to Countess Marie Eleonore of Gersdorff, second to Countess Wilhelmine of Hohenthal
    from the first marriage:
    • Ferdinand, Count and Lord zur Lippe-Weissenfeld, married to Baroness Eleonore Gustave of Thermo
      • Gustav,Count and Lord zur Lippe-Weissenfeld,  married to Countess Ida zur Lippe-Weissenfeld
        • Ferdinand, married to Margarete von Winterfeld
        • Helene, died young
        • Georg
        • Margarete, died young
        • Ernst, died young
      • Agnes, married to Count Hermann of Haslingen
      • Franziska, married to Baron Hermann of Patow
      • Hugo, married to Baroness Berta Schenk of Geyern
        • Issue
      • Berta
      • Gabriele, married to Octavio von Böhn
    from the second marriage:
    • Christian, married first to Countess Friederike of Hohenthal, married second to Wilhelmine von Egidy
      from the first marriage:
      • Marie, married to Count Albrecht of Loeben
      • Emma
      • Oskar
      • Klementine, married to Woldemar von Zezschwitz zu Gerlachsdorf
      • Friedrich
      • Ida, married to Count Gustav zur Lippe-Weissenfeld
      • Franz, married to Baroness Marie of Beschwitz
        • Klemens, married to Baroness Friederike of Carlowitz
          • Ferdinand, married to Princess Dorothea of Schönburg-Waldenburg
            • Franz Clemens Ulrich, married to Lucia Stassen
            • Margarete Friederike Pauline, married to Heyo Hamer
        • Theodor, married to Countess Pauline zu Ortenburg
          • Clemens, married first to Heidi  Fery, second to Valediy Gay Cantola, third to Cassandra Doswell
            Issue
          • Friedrich
          • Elisabeth, married to Count Prosper zu Castell-Castell
          • Ferdinand, married to Baroness Karoline of Felitzsch
            • Felizitas
            • Ilka, married to Christian Strassberger
            • Ferdinand, married to Princess Auguste of Bavaria
              • Louis-Ferdinand
          • Chrstian
          • Georg, married to Aelxandra Gerlach
            • Georg Moritz
        • Margarete, married to Count Curt Zedtwitz von Moraván and Duppau
        • Friederike
        • Alfred
        • Elisabeth, married to  Fürst Wilhelm of Hanau and zu Horowitz, Count of Schaumburg
        • Ernst, married to Princess Anna zu Ysenburg and Büdingen in Büdingen
          • Eleonore, married to Count Sweder of Rechteren-Limpurg
        • Sophie, married to Count Adolf of Arnim
      • Theodor, married to Luise von Arnim
      • Lydia married to Baron Albert of Oppen-Huldenberg
      from the second marriage:
      • Wilhelmine, married to Wolf Rudolf von Ziegler u.Klipphausen auf Nieder-Cunewald
      • Johanna
    • Henriette
    • Ludwig, married to Countess Auguste of Hohenthal
      • Issue
  • Luise Konstanze
  • Karl Christian, married to Countess Konstanz zu Solms-Baruth
    • Issue among them 23 sons who had descendants
  • Albrecht Heinrich Ferdinand, died young
  • Wilhelmine Eleonore Christine
  • Ludwig Ernst August
  • Simon Rudolf
  • Henriette Karoline Luise, married to Prince Albert of Anhalt-Dessau


Principality of Lippe-Detmold


When on On 05.11.1789 the new 21 years old Count Leopold of Lippe took over government. he first, he cashed the still remaining Princes Letter which was requested by his grandfather Simon Heinrich in 1720,  by paying the costs required for this. In December, let the young Fürst in Honour deceased father erect in the garden of Eden a sandstone Monument. In  1790 was the top diagnosed mental disorder to the outbreak and it was followed by his incapacitation by the Imperial Court of Justice; 1795 then the guardianship was canceled due after such improvement occurs. On 02.01. 1796, he married Princess Pauline of Anhalt-Bernburg. In this marriage Fürst recovered  and became the father of two sons. Pauline was his advisor and collaborator, where it established it wise mostly remained in the background and everything avoided what could be interpreted as exceeding their duties. After almost six years of marriage, Fürst Leopold died  on 04.04.1802 intestinal tuberculosis, under whose influence due to more ceased mental disorder and memory loss.
Because his older son and successor the furture Leopold II. was at that time only six years old his mother Pauline took over the Regency.  In the marriage contract between Leopold  I. and Pauline had been in 1795 stipulated that Pauline as a future mother of a minor Fürst should take ovber the guardianship  as well as the regenc. Over this rule, there was fierce opposition from the Lippe estates. For this scheme, however, was the fact that no suitable male guardian was present. Pauline had also been proven that she would be a suitable regent. Nearly two decades took her reign, which is considered a lucky section in the Lippe history. With the Estates, the Knights as a noble landowners and representatives of the cities, the Prince of Lippe and the government had to agree on the diets on important political issues. Up to the regency of Pauliine despite some oppositions between sovereign, government and the cantons, it came frequently to consensus or compromise decisions. From Anhalt-Bernburg Pauline was accustomed to a system of government in which ultimately was the royal will. The realization of their well-intentioned social plans in Lippe she wanted to be in no way excuses from the stands. You finally knew best what was the right thing for the country and its inhabitants. 1805 rejected the booths at the Diet from the introduction of a liquor tax to finance a planned Pauline hospital for the mentally ill. Since then, she summoned the Estates hardly a and reigned over to them.  Although the Lippe government since the 18th century had a growing weight under a Registrar or a provincial government, it came with the Fürstin rarely  to conflicts since the reform ideas of both parties largely covered. Pauline took the government and chamber meetings regularly and met their decisions. Pauline often dominated these sessions with their impatience and their will to lead. She participated in administrative work and took departments, if the officials were absent. However, their main focus was on foreign policy, as they spoke better than any of its officers French and wrote. So they broke through the male monopoly, which was due to their time only their princely stateAfter the acquisition of the foreign ministries in 1810 followed in 1817 as Head of the madhouse, premium distribution and prison by the Princess. In relation to the subjects she gave herself close to the people, but ultimately she ruled autocratically.  The publications of the Count of Rumford inspired Pauline to put their ideas on the state organization of poor relief. She believed that the cause of poverty and related begging in the country was to be found mainly in the Lippe national character with his tendency to laziness and idleness. From the available scientific literature on poor relief she gathered that a real improvement can only be achieved through voluntary or forced labor and not by monetary alms.  Thus began the Pauline t to continue the work of her deceased mother-in-law the Früstin Casimire in accordance with the socio-political currents of their time away. Among the institutions founded by Pauline included the acquisition of school (1799), the child Heritage International Institute (1802), the hospital (1801/02) and the Voluntary Work House (1802). Existed before that the orphanage was founded in 1720 and the Teachers' Training College, founded in 1781. These six independent institutions were merged under the name of nursing home and found their place in the former monastery. They formed the nucleus of today's Princess Pauline Foundation in Detmold. The nursing home took claim for themselves that here every need was helped from cradle to grave. She was considered unique, was often visited by foreign guests thoughtful especially the child Heritage International Institute with praise. The decor was limited to the inhabitants of the residence.  The people appreciated Pauline mainly because of their social institutions. The integrated welfare facilities was considered exemplary at home and abroad, and most visited by British delegations. Your caring for the poor was obvious. You alleviated the famine in 1802 and 1804 by letting Create granaries. Personally, it took care of the weakening effects of war, who were created by quartering troops and positions.  Also for the improvement of infrastructure in the country, she was responsible. She let build new highways and resulted in Detmold street lighting by 26 oil lanterns in. Notable buildings Princess Pauline has not erected, but in the course of her reign, the construction of the neoclassical houses began on the avenue in Detmold. She led the 1819 merger of the existing collections of books in a public library, from which emerged today of Lippe library.  There are numerous indications that Pauline admired Napoléon I. . She was grateful to him for the preservation of state independence of Lippe. Pauline was encouraged in their attitude by the correspondence with the highly educated diplomat Friedrich Karl Reinhard, who was in the service of France and was a friend of Goethe. Reinhard enthusiastic about the French Revolution and was ambassador at the court of the King of Westphalia in Kassel. Until last Pauline believed in the victory of Napoleon. The news of Napoleon's defeat in Russia were not able to change their beliefs. She refused an exit from the Confederation of the Rhine, and caused lippische soldiers prosecute deserted Napoleon's army ware  In addition to Pauline's commitment to social purposes in the country, the preservation of the independence Lippes was her greatest success in foreign policy. She felt obliged to do as guardian of her son everything to preserve its rights undiminished, if possible. The small country was at that time between the warring powers France, Prussia and Hesse and threatened to be occupied during the conflicts of one or the other neighbors. At the beginning of her reign lip was in a contractual neutral protection zone who respected all warring parties. To ensure the neutrality, Prussian troops were in Observation lip. 1806, on the initiative of Napoleon called the Confederation of the Rhine. Prussia responded by the North German Confederation project and solicited members.  Pauline saw the independence Lippes threatened and targeted as a solution to inclusion in the Confederation of the Rhine. With a certificate Napoleon confirmed on 18.04.l 1807 Lippes membership of the Confederation of the Rhine, and Pauline traveled to Paris to negotiate the desired of her special arrangements for lip. It was regarded as an admirer of Napoleon, an attitude that has later earned her a lot of criticism. In justifying its decision, she stated that she would rather the remote France subject than the adjacent Hessen or PrussiaInclusion in the Confederation of the Rhine had the consequence that lip troops had to ask for Napoleon's army. The Lipper opposed and there was unrest. Numerous young men escaped recruitment or deserted during the French campaigns. After Napoleon's defeat in October 1813 in the Battle of Leipzig Lipper beat the French officials to Pauline's dismay. Until recently they had believed in the victory of Napoleon. Lip was occupied by the Prussians as a hostile country and Pauline was considered a collaborator. As a result, Lippe seceded from the Confederation of the Rhine. Legationsrat Preuss closed on 29.11.1813 from the treaties of alliance with Austria and Russia. It led to the formation of a Lippe volunteer corps, which was equipped with donations Lippe citizens. For this purpose, the regent issued a call and let each person, regardless of size, to publish with the donor's name in the Intelligence JournalThat Lippe untouched came out of the political disaster of 1813 was due to the restorative tendencies of Austria and Russia policy. Because the South German Confederation of the Rhine were recorded as an ally that could repentance ready lip, be treated differently.  The dramatic events resulted in Pauline to a nervous breakdown from which she recovered only slowly. So you will not take part in the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, when Europe was reorganized after the victory over Napoleon. Many small states disappeared off the map, Lippes sovereignty was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna. The preamble to the German Federal Act on 08.07.1815 has made in the last position of sovereign princes listedOn  27.12.1808 Fürstin  Pauline signed the Regulation abolition of serfdom in Lippeagainst the will of since 1805 off of the co-regency estates. The Regulation entered into force on 01.01.1809. They followed the example of most other countries of the Confederation of the Rhine. In the era after the French Revolution serfdom was commonly called "relic of the Middle Ages" decisively rejected .   The country stands were composed of representatives of the knights and the cities and kicked a year in a parliament to discuss the affairs of Lippe and to take decisions. With the inclusion Lippes into the Rhine Confederation these rights have been suspended and appointed to the Princess Sovereign. Pauline has refocused its new authority to the effect that they would not need the consent of the Estates now.   Pauline has not resolved the stands but ruled largely without it, such as the absolutist Friedrich Adolf a century earlier. Their relationship to the stands was marred anyway, since they had rejected in 1805 as required by their liquor tax to finance the planned hospital for the mentally ill. After emerging from the Confederation of the Rhine, the Estates demanded their ancient rights back and it came to a bitter dispute with the Princely HouseIn the Vienna Final Act, the final document of the Congress of Vienna, is in paragraph 13: In all German States Constitution the estates will be held [...]. Pauline was then a lippische constitution according to the pattern of some southern German states design, the final version she wrote personally. This was adopted on 08.06.1819 by the Government and then published to the cheers of the population.  The country stands protested against the restriction of their traditional rights and requested the Emperor, the subversive and the democratic spirit flattering and bustle  Princess oppose. On the initiative of Metternich called Carlsbad decrees were passed against democratic activities. They coincided with the altercation together on the Lippe Constitution. The Federal Assembly of the German called Pauline immediately to repeal the Constitution of Lippe again.  Because she was often disappointed by the successor Leopold due to its phlegma and feeld unable to transfer the regency with a clear conscience to him. So she moved the handover repeatedly until critical voices were heard. Finally she surprised her son by her resignation on 03.07.1820. At the beginning Fürst Leopold II. needed  her assistance in the government stores, however, was not to be visible externally.After thaking over the government Leopold II.  led a true hermit life. His wife, Princess Emilie of  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, was a good, gentle woman who surrendered to the strict life of her husband. The couple had nine children and engaged in a pattern-like family life. Leopold II. had two passions, hunting and the theater, which was one of the best in Germany, whose costs but, compared to the revenue of the state, were disproportionately high. Albert Lortzing 1826-1833 was engaged at the Detmold Theatre.As his mother's political legacy took over Leopold II. A constitutional dispute with the stands. On 08.06.1819 Pauline had given their country a modern constitution, with a parliament of 21 members from all classes, selected according to the same, direct suffrage. The reset is sentient needle reached the abrogation of the Constitution to the Bundestag in Frankfurt. A new constitution was not submitted until 06.07. 1836, which no adequate representation zubilligte citizens, peasants and workers, who represented the bulk of the population and the main taxpayers. Under the impact of the March Revolution of 1848 granted Leopold II. Universal, equal and direct suffrage for Lippe#sparliament, which was introduced by the Decree of 16.01.1849. On the issue of the design of a new state constitution, it did not come to an agreement between parliament and government. In Leopold II died. On 01.01.1851, Fürwt Leopold II. died, leaving the heritage of  his mother, the constitutional dispute unresolved to his successor.
Fürst Leopold Ii. and his wife Emilie had nine children:
  • Leopold III. succeeded his father as Fürst
  • Luise
  • Woldemar, succeeded his brother, Fürst Leopold III. as Fürst
  • Friederike
  • Friedrich
  • Hermann
  • Alexander, succeeded his brother, Früst Woldermar as Fürst
  • Karl, died as child
  • Pauline

New Fürst became Leopold II. ildest almost 30 years old sond Leopold III. Hr had studied at the University of Bonn, where the poet Ernst Moritz Arndt welcomed the tall, blond, blue-eyed young man as old Cheruscan. Until his accession to the throne, he was an officer in the Prussian Gardes du Corps. Since 02.09.1873 Leopold was  Lieutenant General of the Cavalry, and from 16 .08..1875 was Chief of Infantry Regiment "Billow of Dennewitz" (6 Westphalian) no. 55. Moreover, Leopold was since 17.01, 1867 Knight of the Black EagleAs a strictly conservative, he was an opponent of the March Revolution. He therefore dissolved the parliament soon and raised by decree of 15.03.1853, the Constitution of 1849 and led to the Constitution of 1836 again, although discouraged him about it. The Liberal Party boiled over this coup, while the Fürst took the view that he had neither caused nor approved, let alone conjured enforced by the Revolution Constitution. His Cabinet councils he replaced it by the inglorious known Dr. Hannibal Fischer, the highly conservative "fleets fishing", and the government continued to make himself extremely unpopular. His successor, the Conservative Minister Alexander of Oheimb, nevertheless achieved a great success in the negotiations with the stands, by carrying out the separation of state and Domanialhaushalt within the meaning of the Prince and the recognition of objects obtained that the Domanium as privately owned by the princely family was recognized. In general, however, took the constitutional dispute, and the liberal opposition excited about Oheimbs of success even more, the prince made life miserable and embittered him, while the rift between conservatives and liberals, between town and country deepened. This hurt the prince certainly, for he was as affable and friendly. At his weekly audiences had everyone has access. His marriage to Princess Elisabeth of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt who took place on 
on 17.04.1852 was childless. Nevertheless, he was very fond of children and gave each Christmas a large group of children in the castle.  Shortly before his death he witnessed in 1875 nor the dedication of the Memorial Hermann by Kaiser Wilhelm I. Shortly thereafter, he was seized with a violent gallbladder and liver disease. Fürst Leopold III. died after a stroke on 08.12.1875. His successor was his younger brother Woldemar.  As a younger son of the reigning Fürst Woldeamr had become an
  an officer in the Prussian army, retired as general of the cavalry and was Chief of Infantry Regiment "Billow of Dennewitz" (6 Westphalian) no. 55 and Knight of the Black Eagle Order. At the begiinning of his reign there existed  very unpleasant political conditions in Lippe  as a result of the constitutional struggles. A decision incompetent parliament, violent political and economic struggles and contradictions between conservatives and liberals, between town and country, between orthodoxy and liberalism. The country tied high hopes on the liberal heir to the throne and his liberal reforms. This hope was fulfilled to a large degree. On  13.01.1876, he appointed August Eschenburg President of the Cabinet of the Ministry with the task of restoring constitutional conditions. They managed this also to convene a working-parliament to move the needle to renounce its feudal privileges and to bring such an agreement is reached. Despite the substantial responsiveness of the government Woldemar emphasized on the other hand vigorously at every opportunity its sovereign rights. Except of the Fürstin Pauline  no other Fürst was so well included in governmental affairs as he. However, he stated that only the outline of the political. Its economy was a major driving force behind his actions and decisions. That he deprived the Court Theatre and the court orchestra of the grant, he forfeited the sympathy of the art-loving public. Since he did not have the affability and kindness of his brother, was more autocratic, disagreeable and taciturn, he was not too popular.. Fürst Woldemar had on 19.11.1858 married Princess Sophie of Baden but the remairriage remaineded childless.  Given the own childlessness, the incapacitated brother Karl Alexander  and the resulting difficulties for the succession he tried to preempt the events. Due to personal dislike and motivated by a concern that his country bequeath a member of a reigning royal house, he named in his will the Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe, a brother-in-law.  of Emperor Wilhelm II. as his successor and sparked therefore the Lippe succession dispute, the in the next decade in Lippe separated the spirits and attracted the attention of world public opinion. Fürst Woldemar deid ion 20.02.1895. His nomninell successor became his youngest living brother Karl Alexander who was insane and in asylum since 1872. Therefore on 24.04.1895, a regency began under Prince Adolf zu Schaumburg-Lippe (1859-1917), youngest brother of the reigning Fürst of Schaumburg-Lippe, and brother-in-law of the German emperor; with the proviso that the regency would end once the succession dispute was settled, either before or after the death of Karl Alexander.  The Lippe Parliament asked on 05.07.1895 that the Bundesrat appoint the Supreme Court of Justice (Reichsgericht) to settle the matter, but on  01.02.1896 the Bundesrat resolved instead to ask the imperial Chancellor to mediate between the parties for the choice of an arbitration panel.  By an agreement of June 25, 29 and 03.07.1896 the three heads of lines (Biesterfeld, Weissenfeld, and Schaumburg-Lippe) agreed to submit a question to an arbitration panel consisting of the King of Saxony and six members of the Reichsgericht chosen by him.  The question submitted was: Who was called to succeed Fürst Karl Alexander?  A law passed in Lippe on 17.10.1896 gave force of law to the future decision of the panel. The panel handed its verdict on 22.06.1897 in Dresden: count Ernst zur Lippe-Biesterfeld was called to succeed. Count Ernst was the closest male agnate of the last prince of the senior line. Prince Adolf proclaimed the end of his regency on July 10, and his minister publicized a telegram from the Emperor stating that "a better and more worthy lord and also lady Detmold will nevermore obtain".  Count Ernst assumed the regency on July 17. The panel had not completely resolved the question: it had designated Count Ernst as being called to succeed after the extinction of the senior line, but it had not said who was next in line after him.  Nor did it say what should happen if the regent should die first. In the same year of 1897, the government submitted a draft law to resolve the first question, declaring the order of succession to be the count-regent, his sons and brothers and their existing male-line issue and any issue to come from henceforth approved marriages, but the Fürst of Schaumburg-Lippe objected and the Bundesrat asked the Lippe parliament not to pre-judge the dispute. Then, on 24.03.1898 the Lippe parliament passed a law resolving instead the second question, that of succession to the regency: modifying the regency law of 1895, it called Ernst's son to succeed him in the regency in case Ernst died before the reigning prince Karl Alexander.  The Fürst of Schaumburg-Lippe again objected to the Bundesrat on 18.04.1898. Meanwhile the dispute took an unexpected and public turn.  Count Ernst had obtained that the Prussian garrison in Lippe would give the same honors to his children as to himself and give them the same treatment of Erlaucht (his father had received the treatment or predicate in 1844 from the reigning prince, but a request to have it recognized by Prussia was denied by the Prussian Ministry of State on 08.06.1877); then this was unilaterally withdrawn.  When Ernst wrote to the Emperor on 15.06. for an explanation, Wilhelm II replied on 17.06. with the following telegram: "Your letter received. Instructions issued by commanding General were issued with my approval after he had inquired. To the Regent what is the Regent's due, nothing more. For the rest, I once for all will not have myself addressed in the tone in which you have thought fit to write to me." Count Ernst sent in November a memorial to the other German princes which was leaked to the press in November 1898, and resulted in a general outcry, and strong pressures from other German rulers against the claims of Schaumburg-Lippe.  Finally, the Bundesrat decided on 05.01.1899 to claim jurisdiction in the matter, declaring it to be one of conflict between member states (Lippe-Detmold and Schaumburg-Lippe), and asked the parliament of Lippe not to pass any laws on the subject, but declared that it was not yet time to rule on the issue since the succession was not open.  This expedient bought a few years' respite.
Count Ernst had married on 17.07.1869 Countess Karoline of Wartensleben. 

They had the following children
  • Adelheid, married to Prince Friedrich of Saxe-Meiningen
  • Leopold succeeded  his father as Regent and became Fürst zur Lippe in 1905
  • Bernhard, married Armgrard von Cramm, she was created Count of Beisterfeld and Princess zur Lippe Biersterfeld in 1909
    Their sons where in 1916 created Princes zur Lippe-Biesterfeld
    • Bernhard, married to Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-nassau etc. They are the grandparents of the present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
    • Aschwin, married to Simone Arnoux
  • Julius Ernst, married to Duchess Marie zu Mecklenburg (-Strelitz)
    • Elisabeth, married to Prince Ernst August zu Solms-Braunfels
    • Ernst August, married to Christa von Arnim
      • Friedrich Wilhelm, married to Andrea Messner
        • Catharina
        • Marie Christine
        • Sophie
      • Stephanie, married (divorced) Nikolaus von Itzenplitz, married second (divorced) to Baron Wulf of Schimmelmann
      • Ernst August, married first (divorced) Countess maria Benedikta of Magnis, married scond to Gerlinde Inge Möltner
        from the first marriage:
        • Marie Christine
      •  Marie Chrstine, married to Peter Jacubowsky
  • Karola
  • Mathilde

Aftter the death of Count Regent Ernst on 26.09.1904 the Issue came up again-.  His son assumed the regency, but the German Emperor initially refused to recognize it, sending the following telegram the same day: "I express to you my sympathy on the death of your father.  As the legal situation has in nowise been cleared up I cannot recognize an assumption of the Regency on your part, and I also will not allow the military to take the oath.  Wilhelm I R." This telegram provoked another political storm.  The telegram had delicate constitutional implications.  As it lacked the countersignature of a minister, its legal value was questionable.  Moreover, while the Emperor had authority over military matters such as the oath, the wording of the telegram implied that his decision in the matter was not merely a consequence of the refusal to recognize the regency, but an independent and arbitrary decision.  This last point was papered over a few days later by an "authentic interpretation" provided by the imperial chancellor.  Count Leopold and the Fürst of Schaumburg-Lippe agreed on Nov. 5 and 8, 1904 to submit again to arbitration, and on Nov. 18 the Bundesrat agreed and transferred its competence to the Reichsgericht.  The imperial Chancellor took the occasion of this resolution to order the troops to take the oath of loyalty to the Regent, skillfully repairing the Emperor's faux-pas.  In the meantime, Fürst Karl Alexander finally died on 13.01.1905, and count Leopold continued to be regent. The panel concluded that all living males of the Lippe-Biesterfeld line were able to succeed in Lippe.  The verdict was published on 25.10.1905.  The next day, the count-regent (now reigning prince) received congratulations from the German Emperor, the Emperor of Austria, the King of Saxony, the regent of Bavaria, and prince Georg of Schaumburg-Lippe, his unsuccessful rival.  Fürst Leopold IV received the grand cross of the Red Eagle in March 1909, seemingly putting an end to the difficulties between Wilhelm II and the Princes of Lippe of the Biesterfeld line.
Principality of Lippe

After the decision of theSupreme Court on 25.10.1905 Count Leopold became Fürst Leopold IV. zur Lippe.  He had received his education at the  Gelehrtenschule in Roßleben, at the high school in Frankfurt at the Oder  and the Royal Pädagogium Putbus where 1891 he completed his schooling. By 1894, he was an officer in the German Army. 1894/1895 he studied political science at the universities of Bonn and Berlin. In Bonn he joined the Corps BorussiaIn 1895 he returned home because the paralysis of his father and the succession dispute his presence made it necessary. The final decision was referred to the arbitration of the members of the IV. And VII. Civil Division of the Supreme Court. Until then Leopold remained  Regent remained. Then the law of succession of the house Biesterfeld was finally recognized by the decision of the Supreme Court, chaired by the Supreme Court President Rudolf von Seckendorff on 25.10.1905Through this Supreme Court decision had to Kaiser Wilhelm II. give up his hope for a throne of his brother-ion-law  and Major General à la suite Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe. In addition, he was so upset that he demonstrative stayed away from the celebrations for the coronation of Fürst Leopold IV. in Detmold. The reign of Fürst Leopold IV  was marked by economic and cultural advancement, he was receptive to technology and industry. To provide the residents with employment opportunities, he equipped the state workshops and perform a greater number of major construction projects. The magnificent buildings of the government and parliament building, the savings banks and banks, the gymnasium, the Teachers' College, Christ Church with royal crypt at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz, the Protestant parish office, the barracks, the expansion of the castle, etc. served this measure. In Bad Salzuflen he supported with grants from its own fund the Erbohrung the Leopold source. His most significant creation is the Prince Leopold Academy of Public Administration: a university, were retrained in the war-torn officers to local officials.  His great passion was hunting and theater, so he had to rebuild in the midst of World War I, the burned fown court Theater. Also popular education, he turned to his care. The National Education Act of 1914 created the State Higher School Authority and eliminated the inspectorate of the Church. The Academy provided the teacher better, the Prussian same. The new tax laws brought an equitable distribution of burdens and a substantial increase in tax revenue. The development of the country by roads and railways promoted trade and transport. In particular, the industrialization made strong progress. In the wake of the November Revolution Leopold IV. was urged by the Lippe population and Soldiers on 12.11.1918 to abdicate. The Princely Residence Castle Detmold remained in family ownership. Leopold IV.'s rule and life fell into historically very eventful and difficult times. Considering how much humiliation and conflicts of his life given (the struggle for equality and succession, World War I, abdication, inflation, property law disputes in the Weimar Republic to the domain and family owned, which continued for nearly two decadesNational Socialism and world War II, it is not surprising that the judgment of contemporaries about the introverted Fürst is staggering. However, he is recognized as honest and rescued by economical and sound management of the family estate.
Fürst Leopold IV. was married twice. On 16.08.1901 he married  Princess Bertha of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld who died in 1919. On 26.04.1922 he made a second marriage to Princess Anna zu Ysenburg and Büdingen in Büdingen. 
from the first marriage:
  • Ernst Leopold, married first (divorced) Charlotte Ricken, married second Hderta-Elise (Helga) Weiland
    from the second marriage:
    • Ernst-Leopold, married to Katrin Hein
      • Nikola, married to Olaf Grünberg
      • Julia, married first to Joachim Tiedau, second to Boris Simons
    • Viktoria, married (divorced) Wolfram Wickert, married second  Christoph Pudelko
  • Leopold Bernhard
  • Karoline, married top Count Hans of Kanitz
  • Chlodwig, married to Veronika Holl'
    • Winfried-Chlodwig, married to Katharine Rochmann
  • Sieglinde, married to Friedrich-Carl Heldman
from the second marriage:
  • Armin, he succeeded his father as head of the Princely House
TSH Prince Armin and Princess Traute
Fürst Leopold IV. died on 30.12.1949 in Detnmiold. In his Testament he passed over the Hereditarys oruicne Ernst Leopold and his others sons from his first marriage and  named instead his youngest son Armin as his Heir as head of the Princely House. In accordance with the wishes of his father, he took in 1949 the name Fürst zur  Lippe on. When the competent authority wanted to write the new name in the license, the Ministry of the Interior of North Rhine-Westphalia turned on. A name approval decision before the end of 1950 wrote that also  for the head of the House Lippe the name Prinz zur Lippe  must apply. After graduation, military service and captivity Armin completed the lip a science degree at the University of Göttingen. In 1954, he received his PhD in Richard Harder with a plant physiological work. On 27.03.1953 Prince Armin married in Göttingen biologist Traute Becker. Prince Armin  manages the heritage of the Princely House  in close collaboration with his son Prince Stephan. He is enrolled in public life in his region active part. He holds a large number of honorary offices. This includes the honorary chairman of the board of the co-founders of Art Society "Lippe Society for Art". Since the establishment of the Foundation for the National Theater Detmold (1970), he serves on the Board of Directors and is also one of the curators of the business which the Lippe Church in Detmold dormitory "The Burse" in which members of different religions of the University of East Westphalia-Lippe, Lemgo and the Hochschule für Musik Detmold in an international community living. The President has given Prince of Lippe 1999, the Federal Cross of Merit, First Class.
From his marriage Prince Armin and Princess Traute have on son:
TSH Prince Stephan and Princes Maria
  • Stephan, married to Countess Maria zu Solms-Laubach 
    • Bernhard Leopold
    • Heinrich Otto
    • Wilhelm
    • Luise 
    • Mathilde